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Nonverbal Test 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (37)
What does "IIP" stand for?
Individualized Instructional Plan
What is a nonconventional presymbolic behavior? Examples?
An idiosyncratic form of gestures. This is something that a random person would not understand as a form of communication
EX: Someone slapping their leg as a way to say hello, someone tapping their foot as a way to say their tired.
Unless you know this person you would not know that this was their intended message.
Why are instructional routines important?
So learners not only communicate better or move but also recognize that communication always serves a purpose
When/Why would you conduct a functional behavioral analysis on a client?
-Because all behaviors are viewed as communication
-those with behaviors that when escalated could harm others or their self
This analysis looks at the antecedent, behavior, and consequence
-After 4 step ecological assessment
-For problems ranging from relatively mild academic difficulties to severe tantrums and self injurious behavior
-To teach communication forms as a replacement for problem behaviors and environment modifications
What type of assessment tool is most appropriate when working with nonsymbolic individuals and why?
- communication profile assessment OR
-Criterion Referenced- most appropriate when working with non symbolic individuals
Must be conducted by familiar persons
Must use real life materials and naturalistic activities
Must translate info into relevant functional skills
should include trifocus framework
Name three naturally occurring contexts in which you could embed goals for a preschooler.
What are some appropriate ways to facilitate language in young children?
-Act and communicate as much as child does
-Respond to child's communicative signals
-Initiate communicative exchanges
-Communicate for a response---- wait for response
-Sustain joint activities
-Respond to emerging communication skills
-Respond to child's interests and pace
-Respond to child's actions and communicative signals
-Respond to child's nonverbal communication
-follow the child's lead
-comment more than asking questions or commands
What are examples of responsive interaction interventions?
-responsive interaction interventions?
-Increase amount of speech that refers to child's interest
-use more expansions
-provide more opportunities for child turns increase verbal responses to child
-Establishment of joint and mutual attention
How do you conduct a language sample for a non-symbolic/ minimally symbolic individual?
You could use a discrepancy analysis form
-ecological assessment, observation, parent/teacher interview
What is the purpose of a FBA? What does the functional behavioral assessment include?
-The purpose is to focus on the understanding the purpose of the problem behavior with the goal of increasing the quality of life for the individual
-Analyze and define the function of challenging behaviors
-Variables of settings
-Consequences of problem behavior
What is the definition of scaffolding?
Building on or adding to a child's communicative prompts
-it is an additional technique that enhances prelinguistic development.
What is the definition of interrupting routines?
unexpected departure from the anticipated sequence or action typically prompts a comment, protest, or request
What is the definition of a task analysis?
-observing in natural contexts
-One of the strategies for assessing nonsymbolic communication
-breaking down skill into small steps to make it easier to teach
What is the definition of modeling?
a behaviorally based procedure that involves the use of live or symbolic models to demonstrate a particular behavior, thought, or attitude that a client may want to acquire or change.
What theory of learning is systematic instruction based upon?
Skinner's applied behavior analysis ABA
What is the purpose of shaping?
Each step or approximation is reinforce until learned and the next step is taught until eventually the complex target is produced.
Give an example of stimulus prompting.
cues that are used in conjunction with task material to ensure a correct response--- teacher points to correct picture, correct picture is placed closest to student's right hand
How should you write treatment goals for infants and toddlers?
Ex of goals: Social Play, Turn Taking, and Conversation
Who is the major agent of change in early intervention?
What does it mean to "set the language table?"
Set up the environment to tempt them to communicate
For example, says lets color but do not give crayon
Whats the definition of transdisciplinary?
comprehensive assessment parents and team work together, primary service provider
-(takes info and implements plan,new holistic approach)
What is the definition of multidisciplinary?
work next to each other, assess individually, plan own treatment plan
-(Multidisciplinary involves little interaction across disciplines.)
Name 2 characteristic of a "family friendly" routine?
individualized to families and performed at home
What should be included in a behavioral support plan?
Contextual variables - schedule, location, social context
Physiological variables - sleep/eating cycles, allergies, etc.
Alternative communication responses that serve the same purpose as the problem behaviors
What is prompt dependency?
-Prompt dependence is when a student needs a prompt in order to initiate a skill or activity
-Dangerous because cannot always be around the client when they are initiating/completing activity/skill
What questions should you ask parents in an ecological assessment?
What is child's history?
What is your dream for child's future?
What is your nightmare?
Who is child?
What are child's greatest strengths or gifts?
What are child's greatest needs/challenges?
What daily routines does your individual have difficulty performing independently that typically-aged peers can?
What would child's ideal school day be like and what do we need to do to make it happen?
What cognitive skills most correlate to the ability or capacity to learn language/skills?
Tool use, causality, imitation, and functional use of objects
Think about some ways that you could modify the environment, the task, or the teaching of skills in a non-symbolic individual's life.
Environment: pay attention to the social and physical aspects of the environment, the environment can heavily influence the interactions between the communication partner and the learner.
Two guidelines for teaching: attend to natural contexts, modify the environment to promote communication.
Be able to name some possible pre-speech goals for intervention for infants and toddlers?
Establish eye contact
Establish whole body imitation/turn taking
Establish fine motor imitation
Establish consistent pairing of sound and meaning for communication
What are 6 goals/ tasks of assessment for nonsymbolic communicators?
1. Identify how and why individual uses communication
Both typical and idiosyncratic means
2. Identify reasons or functions of that communication
3. Identify the degree of intentionality for each communication function
4. Determine how readable nonsymbolic communicative behaviors are.
5. Identify repair strategies
6. Capacity for symbol use across activities
What are some ways to improve/enhance nonsymbolic communication in relation to the context of the environment? p. 432
1. Enhance sensitivity- being aware and receptive to the subtle cues of others
2. Sequence experiences- organizing a related series of activities into a sequential, predictable format
3. Augment input- enhancing meaning and facilitating retention pairing, vocal input, and alternative modes
4. Increase opportunities- providing a favorable situation for communication participation
What are examples of how to provide intervention to address the Environment, the Partner, and the Learner?
With the Learner- with nonsymbolic activities by expanding their repertoire
With the Partner- The communication partner needs to take a more active role when communicating with learner. They should present information in a clear way without relying on symbols
With the Environment- partners will pay attention to physical and social aspects of the environment
What is included in the Ecological Assessment Process?
The branches of the ecological assessment process include:
1. Functional analysis of behavior:
-All behaviors are viewed as communicative
-Problem behavior can serve a specific, adaptive purpose/function
-We must discover what the function of the problem behavior is in order to change it
-Develop a behavior support plan to include:
~Contextual variables (schedule, location, social context)
~Physiological variables (sleep/eating cycles, allergies)
~Alternative comm responses that serve the same purpose as the problem behaviors
-The study of behavior in its natural context focusing on ways species are alike and develop in similar ways
-Valued because of focus on evaluating life in normal ordinary settings and comparing human development with that of other species
3. Ecological assessment
-The study of behavior in its context
Why use this approach: Helps team formulate age appropriate objectives, facilitates planning for the child in inclusive settings, assists in implementation of plan in inclusive settings
What are the 10 steps for individualized Ecological Assessment- Planning?
1. Person- centered planning- getting to know the student/ child/ family
2. List activities/ routines in a typical day for the child
3. Prioritize activities/routines and develop and broad goal statement
4. Observe and record the behavior of a nondisabled peer and/or conduct interviews to determine key expectations
5. Observe/record the behavior of each child from initiation to completion of each priority activity/routine
6. Compare the students behavior with behavioral expectations for each activity/routine
7. Highlight language and communication skills
8. Try to ascertain why key behaviors are not demonstrated
9. State Language/ Communication objectives for each activity
10. Develop an Individualized Instructional Plan for Each Objective
What questions did you ask in Step 1 of the Ecological Assessment Process?- Getting the know the person
What is the child's history?
What is your dream for their future?
What is your nightmare?
What are their greatest strengths? Weaknesses?
What is a typical day like?
What is your idea of an ideal day? And what can we do to make that happen?
What are some intervention guidelines to enhance partners' nonsymbolic and symbolic expressions?
Four guidelines for improving communication intervention are
1. enhance sensitivity
2. Sequence experiences
3. Augment input
4. increase opportunities
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