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Listening Distractions

Anything that competes for a listener's attention. May be internal or external.


Greek scholar and one of thee first public speakers
Introduced the Canons of Rhetoric

Types of anxiety

Pre-Preparation, Preparation, Pre-Performance, Performance

Pre-Preparation Anxiety

A form of public speaking anxiety that occurs the moment speakers learn they must give a speech

Preparation Anxiety

A form of public speaking anxiety that arises when a speaker begins to prepare for a speech. He may feel overwhelmed at the amount of time and planning required.

Pre-Performance Anxiety

a form of public speaking anxiety that occurs when the speaker begins to rehearse a speech

Performance Anxiety

Anxiety when giving a speech. It is worse during the introduction of a speech.

organizational Speech patterns

The way an informational text is presented to the reader:
1)Chronological, 2) Spatial, 3) Cause/Effect,
4) Problem/Solution, 5) Topical, 6) Narrative, 7) Circular

Chronological pattern of arrangement

follows the sequential order of events

Spatial pattern of arrangement

A pattern of organizing main points in order of their physical proximity ex. a place, a scene, or an object.

Cause/Effect pattern of arrangement

a pattern of organizing speech points in order, first of causes and then of effects or vice versa ex.bad habits=> disease

Comparitive pattern of arrangement

speech points are organized to show how your viewpoint or proposal is superior to one or more alternatives. good for persuasive speeches

Problem/Solution pattern of arrangement

organizes main points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem to provide justification for a proposed solution

Topical pattern of arrangement

pattern of organizing points as subtopics or categories of the speech topic, most freedom of structure

Narrative pattern of arrangement

organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a story

Circular pattern of arrangement

organizing speech points so that each point leads to the next, eventually arriving back at the thesis.


Our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events


Our most enduring judgements about what is good / bad in life as shaped by our culture and our unique experiences within it.


ways in which people percieve reality or determine the existance or validity of something.

Canons of Rhetoric

5 parts of a speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory & delivery. Guidelines or rules established by Aristotle.

Voluntary audience

a collection of people who chose to listen to a particular speaker or speech

Captive audience

an audience that is required to attend

Main Points

Statements that express your key ideas and major themes of a speech. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis statement.


A problem-solving technique that involves the spontanious generation of ideas: includes making lists, using word association, and mapping topics.


A feeling of commonality with another, as you would like to establish with your audience


only those points implied by the purpose and the thesis statement to focus on a main idea.


The parts of a composition should be arranged in a logical and orderly manner so that the meaning and ideas are clear and intelligible


When the appropriate emphasis or weight is equally divided among all parts, relative to the other parts and to the theme.

Types of outlines

working outline, speaking outline, sentence outline, phrase outline, key-word outline

key-word outline .

uses smallest possible units of understanding to outline main/supporting points

speaking outline .

a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech

sentence outline/ format

An outline in which each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form and in precisely the way the speaker wants to express an idea.

phrase outline .

takes parts of sentences and uses those phrases as instant reminders of what the point or subpoint means.

Preparation outline

an outline used in developing a speech; main ideas and supporting material are usually set forth in complete sentences

working outline

used to organize and firm up main points and develop supporting points to substanciate your evidence

library portal

an entry point into a large collection of research and reference in formation that has been selected and reviewed by librarirans

Types of speeches

Informative(Demonstration), Persuasive, Invitational, Special Occasion

Informative speech

An unbiased speech that expands listener's knowledge with a demonstration, discription, or explanation

Persuasive speech

A type of speech that influences listener's beliefs and actions

Invitational speech

A type of speech that amuses and diverts listeners so they relax & enjoy themselves., speech that allows the speaker to establish a dialogue with an audience to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or share beliefs and values

Special Occasion Speech

a speech that is prepared for a specific occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion ex Introductory, Commerative, Acceptance


a word, phrase, or passage that links one subject or idea to another in speech or writing and enables the speaker to move smoothly from one topic to another

Characteristics of reliable websites

trustworthy domain, has "about" link, Identifies creator, current, documents it's sources


statistical characteristics like the geographic location, age, education, income, gender, ethnicity, religious and political affiliation, etc. of a population


thinking of what you are going to say next - with a defensive posture -while someone is talking to you, instead of listening to them

Pillars of Character

1) Fairness 2)Trustworthyness 3) Respect 4) Responsibility

Types of search engines

1) Individual - google - yahoo - have their own databases
2) Meta - Variety of search engines- many charge sites
3) Specialized - narrower- deeper searches

Closed-ended Questions

Questions designed to elicit a small range of answers ex. Yes or No

Open-ended Questions

questions that encourage verbalization and response; questions that seek a response beyond a simple yes or no

Common Knowledge

Information that is likely to be known by many people and is therefore in the public domain, the source need not be cited in a speech.

General Speech Purpose

The broad speech purpose that answers the question "Why am I speaking on this topic for this particular audience and occasion?" Usually the purpose is to inform, to persuade, or to celebrate or commemorate a special occasion.

Specific Speech Purpose

A refined statement of purpose that zeroes in more closely than the general purpose on the goal of the speech.

Thesis Statement

complete sentence describing the theme or central idea of a speech


The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker


Each of us devotes about______% of our daily lives to listening.

Characteristics of oral style

use familiar terms, easy to follow sentences, repeat key words and phrases 3 times, uses we, I, & you, expected to be formal,
clear recognizable & organized, audience needs recognition

Supporting points

Examples, definitions, testimony, and statistics that support or illustrate a speaker's main points.

Name and discuss the 4 functions of an introduction

1) capture attention(use a quotation, short story, example),
2) Introduce the topic & purpose of the speech
3) Preview your main points
4) Use a transition to signal start of the speech

Discuss the guidelines for evaluating internet sources

Is it reliable? Check the URL.
Is it authoritative? Who wrote it?
How current is it? Recent is best.
How complete is the information? Read the whole article.
Is it relevant? Does it pertain to your article?
is it consistant / unbiased?

Name and discuss the elements of the communication process.

In any communication event there are several elements:
1) Source - person creating the message
2) Receiver - is the audience
3) Channel - medium through which message is delivered ex tv
4) Shared Meaning - understanding of message between all

Name and discuss the 5 canons of rhetoric:

1) Invention - Adapting speech info to fit your audience
2) Arrangement -Organize in ways best suited to speech/audience
3) Style - Use of language to express ideas
4) Memory - Method of rehearsing
5) Delivery - Method of presenting speech for optimal effect
* Guidelines or rules of speechmaking established by the Greek
scholar Aristotle.

Name and discuss the 4 stages of speaking anxiety:

1) Pre-Preparation - Anxious hearing you must make a speech
2) Preperation - Anxious about time & planning required
3) Pre-Presentation - Anxious when rehearsing, may decide not to
4) Presentation - Most anxious at introduction, gets better

Discuss the role demographics play in adapting your speech to the audience.

First you must know your audience. There are 6 statistical characteristics to consider: age, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religion, political affiliation and gender. Other factors may include: group membership, physical disability, sexual orientation or place of residence. Once you identify your target audience you will know the best way to present your ideas.

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