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STLCC Exam 5
Terms in this set (99)
mental processes that enable you to encode, store, and retrieve your experiences and other information
Neurocognitive disorders of late life (>65) feature a deterioration of cognitive abilities (especially with memory, social appropriateness, emotional outbursts, delusions, and/or hallucinations) collectively known as:
the inability to remember information that was previoiusly available
process of turning new information into a memory; requires your attention and some effort - such as studying
When the person has cognitive and behavioral deficits but is still fairly functional, neurocognitive disorders are referred to as:
published the textbook --> Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology; developed a forgetting curve
process of retaining your memories to be used later; requires that you occasionally review and/or use the information
When the person has neurocognitive disorders symptoms that interfere with independence, it's reffer to as:
(Ebbinghaus) forgetting curve
revealed two distinct patterns in forgetting: 1- much of what we forget is lost relatively soon & 2-the amount of forgetting eventually levels off
process of recovering memories; requires a trigger or stimulus from the environment (i.e. a test question)
Which neurocognitive disorder features plaques and tangles which cause neurons to stop functioning (and die) which causes memory loss?
one of the most common reasons for forgetting because we never encoded the information into LTM in the first place
One of the symptoms of Alzheimer's is a lack of interest in things, which is called:
stage model of memory
model of memory with three stages:
1: sensory information from the environmental grabs your attention (sensory memory)
2: you actively encode what you want to remember (short-term memory)
3: the newly encoded memory is stored for later retrieval (long-term memory)
One of the symptoms of Alzheimer's is having difficulty with language, known as:
forgetting because you don't use the information and it naturally fades away over time (normal metabolic process of the brain); evidence contradicts this theory because forgetting decreases over time (forgetting curve)
stage of memory that registers information from the enviornment and holds it for a very brief period of time (duration: ~1/2 sec. snapshots); allows us to perceive the world as continuous rather than seperate/disconnected images and sounds
active/working stage of memory in which information is encoded; duration: ~20 sec. and capacity: ~7 (this is sometimes called working memory)
One of the symptoms of Alzheimer's is experiencing confusion related to a decline in visual-spatial abilities?
forgetting is caused by a disruption of the consolidation process
stage where memories are stored; duration: anything over ~20 sec. and capacity: unlimited
The cause of Alzheimer's is primarily:
memory researcher who showed that memories are not simply recorded but rather are actively constructed and reconstructed
Which sex has more risk of developing Alzheimer's?
a memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information; ex: suggestive questions
a memory-distortion when the true source of the memory is forgotten or when a memory is attributed to the wrong source
visual sensory memory
also called iconic memory because it's the brief memory of an image or icon (visual snapshot that lasts ~1/2 sec.); these sensory impressions slightly overlap so that we see continuous motions
Which medical condition is highly correlated with developing Alzheimer's?
auditory sensory memory
also called echoic memory because it's a brief memory of sound, like an echo (auditory snapshots lasts up to 4 sec.) which explains why we can hear a question after it was asked even if you weren't paying attention
What everyday activity is related to developing Alzheimer's if you don't engage in it for the proper amount of time?
a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that didn't actually occur
mental or verbal repetition of information in order to remember it beyond the ~20 sec. of short-term memory
What is the prognosis and typical outcome of Alzheimer's?
Which type of nerocognitive disorder features neuronal dysfunction in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain?
rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to LTM
factors that enhance encoding
rehearsal, applying information to yourself (self-reference effect), and use of visual imagery, mnemonics, distribution of practice (study in two short sessions rather than one long session), study in a variety of ways, study with others, etc.
severe memory loss
memories of different skills, operations, or actions; ex: buttoning your shirt, tying your shoes, driving
Unlike Alzheimer's, where the age of onset is nearly always over 65yrs of age, Frontotemporal Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that begins in the:
loss of memory, especially for episodic information, of the past; backward-acting amnesia due to head trauma
memories of events/experiences in your life (or events that you witnessed); ex: what you did on your 21st birthday, your graduation, taking your driving test, etc.
Which neurocognitive disorder usually starts with a stroke and blood clot that impairs circulation?
loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia due to damage specifically to the hippocampus
memories of general knowledge, concepts, facts, and names; ex: who brings you gifts if you've been good at Christmas?
dementia with lewy bodies
Which neurocognitive disorder features symptoms of dementia due to protein deposits in the brain usually associated with Parkinson's Disease?
a dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information but due to psychological trauma (not head injury); Freud used to call this "repression"
when you can't recall information you know you've encoded and stored in long-term memory
If an older person is having difficulty with attention, odd perceptions, confusion, feelings of terror, and slurring their words, they have:
information or knowledge (episodic or semantic) that can be consciously recalled and explained; memory with awareness (also called declarative); ex: your wedding (episodic) or who teaches your Gen. Psych. class at FV (semantic)
Delirium can be caused by sleep deprivation or due to the side effects of taking too many medications, which is knowns as:
a memory phenomenon in which we tend not to notices things going on around us unless we are specifically trying to pay attention; ex: you may not notice if I started teaching class wearing a blue scarf and somewhere in the middle switch to wearing a green scarf (because you're paying attention to what I'm saying rather than what I'm wearing)
information or knowledge (procedural) that cannot be consciously recalled but is easy to imply or demonstrate; memory without awareness (also called non-declarative); ex: being able to type without looking at the keyboard but not being able to recall the letters on the bottom row of your keyboard
What is the term for the gradual process of aging?
how to avoid leading an eye-witness
Just say "tell me what you saw", Always tell the eyewitness that the real criminal may not be pictured, Have a computer show suspect pictures one at a time (no multiple choice line ups), Realize that true recognition occurs within 20sec, Don't say anything to them after they've
any trigger (a clue, prompt, hint, smell, song, etc..) that helps you recall information in LTM
compression of morbidity
Which theory of late life says most people will be come distressed because the amount of time they spend healthy decreases while the amount of time they spend ill increases (i.e. their quality of life is poor)?
loss of memory of our early childhood due to lack of brain development
retrieval cue failure
inability to recall information in LTM because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues
Which theory of late life says most people start to gain spiritual beliefs to manage their anxiety about death?
loss of memory due to a neurological disorder where the tau protein forms plaques (build-up on the outside, around the dendrites) and tangles (build-up on the inside) which prevent neurons from functioning and ultimately causing them to die
loss of memory due to the final stages of severe alcoholism
serial position effect
tendency to remember information at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle
Which sex tends to believe in religious concepts more as well as have lower blood pressure and longer life expectancy?
tendency to recall the first items in a list
Which theory of late life says if a person develops coping skills and a positive outlook, they will slow the process of again and have improved health?
chronic traumatic encephelopathy
loss of memory due to repeated concussions, usually due to playing sports
tendency to recall the final items in a list
Does research support the psychological capital theory of aging?
ways to prevent memory loss
● Stimulate your brain (music lesson)
● Keep your body healthy
● Review (use it or lose it)
● Avoid dangerous activity
having a feeling that you've already experienced something that you're supposedly just experiencing for the first time... possibly due to memory loss
encoding specificity principle
we tend to retrieve the way we encode; ex: it's hard to recall the months in alphabetical order because we didn't encode them that way
Who discovered that there is a correlation to the number of beats your heart can make and lifespan? (He called it the Rate-of-Living Theory but it's become more popularly called The Heartbeat Hypothesis.)
ways to enhance your memory
● Distribution of study (2x more effective)
● Proper sleep (consolidation)
● Commit the time (encoding)
● Focus (prevent interference)
● Organize the information (effects)
● Elaborate (make it meaningful to you)
● Explain it (teaching = true mastery)
● Encode in more than one way
● Reviewing (maintain/extend duration)
● Proper overall health (body-mind)
tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting; ex: walking through the house to remember where you put your keys
a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood; ex: if you're sad, you're more likely to remember your dog's death
Smoking and exposure to the sun make you age:
a vivid, emotionally chared memory with very specific details (may be inaccurate); ex: where you were during 9-11 or your wedding day
Which personality trait has been linked with causing rapid aging?
any learning strategy that helps memory
Which type of hormones cause you to age rapidly?
grouping of related items together into a single unit for easier remembering; ex: if making a grocery store list, you might try to create a memory for all of the "fruits" you needs, etc.
Which type of foods cause you to age rapidly?
superior autobiographical memory
this type of memory is a near-perfect ability to recall every episodic memory you've made
this part of the brain stores all your memories, which are distributed throughout the entire brain
the lobe of the brain where most of your long term memories are, and the part that helps specifically with the sequence of events
the lobe of the brain where sensory memories are helping you encode contextual/locational and bodily kinesthetic aspects of memory such as if it was a cold day or if the object you touched for the first time felt smooth, etc.
the lobe of the brain that processes the visual aspects of memories such as the color of someone's hair
the lobe of the brain that processes a wide variety of aspects of memory but especially auditory information such as the sound of someone voice
medial temporal lobe
this part of the temporal lobe helps new short-term memories (specifically semantic and episodic memories) become long-term memories
the part of the limbic system that helps us pay attention to things; helps us determine which things to encode
the part of the limbic system that helps us encode new memories
the part of the limbic system that helps us process the emotional aspects of our memories
a part of the brain that helps us process memories with particular smells
the part of the brain that helps us specifically with procedural memories
this model of memory points out that memory is NOT like a video recording of information but rather like individual sensory bits of information and that each time we recall a memory, we actually reconstruct these individual bits and create a memory - which explains why memories distort so easily
semantic network model
this model describes memory as a complex interconnection of associations, which is why one memory easily triggers another
this model describes memory as something similar to jello meaning after encoding, the mind needs time to allow the memory to "set" before it's truly going to be kept long-term, which explains why we easily forget things we've encoded (e.g. because it didn't have time to set or other factors such as interference disrupted this process)
this effect of memory describes the correlation between the physical state you are in when you encode and the increase in your ability to recall that information when you are in the same physical state
this effect of memory teaches us that things which stand out are easier to remember
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
STLCC Exam 4
pyschology unit 1: stlcc
psychology unit 2: stlcc
psychology unit 3: stlcc
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
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