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AP Psychology (Myers 8th Edition) Chapter 4
Developing Through the Life Span
Terms in this set (44)
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the lifespan
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. Often causes noticeable facial disproportions.
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. Repeated exposure causes interest to decrease
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Piaget's stage from birth to age 2; when infants know the world mostly in term of their sensory impressions and motor activities
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Piaget stage from 2 to 7 years when a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and other's mental states (feelings, perceptions, thoughts) and the behaviors they might predict
disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others
Concrete operational stage
Piaget stage from 7 to 11 years when children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Formal operational stage
Piaget stage beginning at age 12 when people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
(Erikson) sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; formed during infancy by appropriate experience with responsive caregivers
a sense of one's identity and personal worth
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Primary Sex Characteristics
body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary Sex Characteristics
non reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
the first menstrual period
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
in Erikson's theory the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical function
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
research in which the same people are restudied over a long period
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior
the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others
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