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Chapter 11 and 12 Review Questions

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left atrium
The pulmonary veins empty directly into the _____ ____.
oxygenated
The pulmonary veins are unusual because they carry _______ blood.
bicuspid
From the left atrium, blood flows through the ________ valve.
left ventricle
From the left atrium, blood goes to the _____ _______.
aorta
From the left ventricle, the blood is pushed to the ________.
aorta
Many arteries branch from the ______, carrying oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body.
vena cava
The blood that has been pumped throughout the body eventually returns to the heart, entering at either the superior or inferior ______ ______.
right atrium
The vena cava dump deoxygenated blood into the _______ _______.
right ventricle
Blood passes from the right atrium to the ______ _______.
pulmonary trunk
Blood leaves the right ventricle, and goes into the _______ _______, which subsequently branches into arteries that carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
left
Blood returns from the lungs and enters the _____ side of the heart.
pulmonary veins
The ________ ________ bring blood back to the heart.
left gastric
The ______ _____ artery supplies the stomach.
intrinsic
The _______ conduction system sets the heart's basic rhythm.
sinoatrial
The ________ node, starts each heart beat and sets the pace for the whole heart.
veins
These drain the tissues and return the blood to the heart.
externa
The outermost layer of a blood vessel is called the tunica _______, its mainly composed of fibrous connective tissue.
media
The middle layer of blood vessels, thats mostly smooth muscle and elastic fibers is called the tunica ________.
intima
The tunica ________, which lines the interior or "lumen" of a blood vessel, is a thin layer of endothelium resting on a basement membrane.
aorta
Blood pressure is highest in the ________.
vena cava
Blood pressure is lowest in the ______ _______.
right atrium
The SA node is located in the ____ ______.
epicardium
The visceral layer of the heart is called the __________, which is actually part of the heart wall.
interventricular septum
The wall that separates the ventricles is called the ______ ______
blood pressure
What is the pressure that blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels called?
peripheral resistance
The amount of friction that blood encounters as it flows through the blood vessels is called ________ ________.
tachycardia
A rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute is called _________.
isograph
Tissue grafts donated by a genetically identical person - an identical twin - are called what?
autograph
Tissue graft transplanted from one site to another in the same person is called an _________.
skin, mucous membranes
The bodys first line of defense agains disease causing microorganisms would be the ____ and ______ _______.
keratinized
The skins __________ epidermis is a strong physical barrier to most microorganisms that swarm on the skin.
naturally, artificially
Acquired immunity can happen ________ or ________.
active naturally aquired
Having an infection - direct contact with the pathogen - is an example of what form of acquired immunity?
passive naturally aquired
Antibodies passing from mother to fetus via placenta, or infant to mother via breastmilk is what form of immunity?
active artificially aquired
A vaccine of dead or attenuated pathogens is what form of immunity?
passive artificially aquired
An injection of immune serum, gamma globulin, is what form of immunity?
inflammation
Redness, heat, swelling and pain are the four signs of _________.
IgG
This antibody crosses the placenta and provides passive immunity to the fetus.
IgE
This antibody binds to mast cells, triggers the release of histamines.
toward
Lymph flows only _______ the heart.
complement
________ is the chief antibody ammunition used against cellular antigens, such as bacterial of mismatched RBC.
neutralization
________ occurs when antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial endotoxins. They block the harmful effects of the endotoxin or virus.
agglutination
This type of antigen-antibody reaction occurs when mismatched blood is transfused and is the basis of tests used for blood typing.
precipitation
When antigen-antibody complexes are so large that they settle out of the solution, it is called _____.
MADGE
What women's name helps you remember the 5 immunoglobulin classes?
2nd
Phagocytes are part of the body's ___ line of defense
2nd
NK cells are part of the body's ____ line of defense.
1st
Secretions of the skin and mucous membranes are part of the body's ____ line of defense.
immunity
Resistence to disease is called _______.
lysozyme
Saliva and lacrimal fluid contain ________, an enzyme that destroys bacteria.