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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Industrial Revolution Inventors, Industrial Revolution Inventions, REview Industrial Revolution
Terms in this set (75)
Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
Three causes of the Industrial Revolution
Agriculture revolution, new technologies, population growth
Founder of modern nursing
drug that prevents pain during surgery
Why did Great Britain Industrialize first
because of its resources, location or geography, population and capital
discovered how antiseptics prevented infection
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
What was the goal of the Utilitarians
the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Why did Charles Darwin's ideas cause such controversy
Because the challenged the teachings of the Bible
separate iron from its ore
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
former slave who became an abolitionist and women's rights activist
money for investment
Life in early industrial cities
crowded housing, unsanitary conditions, factories, poverty
developed modern atomic theory
A business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories.
How did social order change in industrial nations?
Two new social classes were added- the working class and the Middle class
The main goals of the Woman's Movment
fairness and equality, led the temperance movement, women's suffrage
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
A person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business
Leader of English Romanticism who published works in the countryside
system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England
3values associated with the Middle class
hardwork, determination, and thriftiness
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.
road on which tolls are collected
(1772-1823)-English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
French poet and novelist and dramatist
German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
multistory building divided into crowded apartments
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
French inventor of the first practical photographic process, the daguerreotype (1789-1851)
standard of living
Quality of life based on ownership of necessities and luxuries that make life easier.
a change in position within the social hierarchy
an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses.
A French chemist, this man discovered that heat could kill bacteria that otherwise spoiled liquids including milk, wine, and beer.
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
These brothers were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio who built and flew the first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903.
means of production
the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo
political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
Englishman who developed the first efficient method for the mass production of steel
A machine that generates electricity
founder of modern communism
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
a Utopian who set up a model community at his cotton mill in Scotland
(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
A share of ownership in a company
1798 said human population can outgrow food supply; result will be war, famine, disease.
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
Invented the cotton gin
a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
rebuilding of the poor areas of a city
mutual aid societies
self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers
Cult of Domesticity
idealization of women and the home
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
the right of women to vote
Belief that one race is superior to another
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
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