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Chapter 1: New World Beginnings
Vocab and Discussion Topics.
Terms in this set (35)
The first part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level.
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America, or modern day Peru.
A civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century.
States whose populations share a sense of national identity, usually including a language and culture
An ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis.
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians grew maize, beans and squash together to maximize yields.
In trading systems, those who operate between the original buyers and the retail merchants who sell to consumers.
A light sailing ship that is easy to maneuver and can sail in shallow water.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the New World and the Old World following Columbus's voyages.
Treaty of Tordesillas
An agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru.
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the natives.
"Sad Night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochitlan, killing hundreds.
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.
Battle of Acoma
Battle between Spaniards under Don Juan and the Pueblo indians. The Indians were crushed and the area was named New Mexico.
An Indian uprising, where Pueblo rebels in an attempt to resist Catholicism and Europeans all together destroyed every catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of Spanish settlers.
Concept that Spanish conquerors merely tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit.
Ferdinand of Aragon
He married Isabella of Castile to form a union for Spain. He and Isabella worked together to form a strong infantry army in Spain.
Isabella of Castile
Married Ferdinand of Aragon, led the Reconquista and began Inquisition with her husband
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492.
A Spanish conquistador who went to the Incas and took the emperor prisoner. He killed him so he could take over the Inca empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting native peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel natives to labor.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico.
Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortes.
Aztec Ruler, mistook Cortes to be god and welcomed him into the empire. Offered him gifts, but was killed nonetheless.
Also known as John Cabot, this Italian mariner was sent by the English to explore the northeastern coast of North America.
Robert de La Salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
Father Junipero Serra
Franciscan friar who established 21 missionaries along the coast of California.
Describe the geological and geographical conditions that set the stage for North American history.
Once chunks of land broke away from Pangaea, land began to form new continents.The Canadian Shield was the first part of the North America land mass to surface above sea level. During the Great Ice Age a land bridge was formed allowing people to migrate over. As the ice melted and flowed it created mountains and filled lakes and rivers.
Describe the origin and development of the major Indian cultures.
The native cultures of North America originated from those who crossed the land bridge connecting Asia and North America. As the centuries passed the people spread as far as modern day Peru. Some of the most notable civilizations were the Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs. Their sophisticated farming spread across the Americas. Most civilizations were based on their farming methods.
Explain the developments in Europe and Africa that led up the Columbus's voyage to America.
The Christian Crusades gave the Europeans a hunger for exotic luxuries. With the Caravel Europeans could travel into Africa, specifically the Sahara. The Europeans were able to get cheap labor from Africa. This exploitation slaves with plantations would shape the New World. After the unification of Spain from the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile the Spanish looked west.
Explain the changes and conflicts that occurred when the diverse worlds of Europe, Africa and the Americas collided after 1492.
The Europeans weren't the only ones to experience new animals and food when the two worlds collided. Africa had a population boom from all the new foods from the New World. The trade between the New and Old world was the Columbian Exchange. Most of the natives would soon be helpless to the many diseases that the Europeans brought with them. This would cause an separation that led to war and many conflicts.
Describe the Spanish conquest of Mexico and South America and identify the major features of Spanish colonization and expansion in North America.
The Spanish conquistadors were the first to encounter many of the natives in the Americas. Franciso Pizarro was able to crush the Incas which flooded money in to European economy. The Caribbean Islands became a base for the Spanish explorers and conquerors. The Spaniards had such a craving for gold they became ruthless. Although they killed and diseased the people and destroyed lands they did also leave their culture giving a foundation for a new society.