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World War Unit 2 Exam

World Wars Unit 2 Exam, the Start of WWI, Notes start 2/1/11, flashcards created 2/21/11
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Norman Angell
Wrote "The Great Illusion" and drew the conclusion that war makes no sense: obsolete due to Europe's economies working together, war could bring disaster to own nation
Problems: Policy Makers, war is their job, war possible through speed, quick ending wars
Schlieffen Plan
Alfred von Schlieffen the German Chief of Staff, saw encirclement as an issue and targeted France and Russia, France first, avoid a two front war, France is an immediate threat
Problems: Plan violated Belgian neutrality
Plan 17
French Plan by Field Marshall Joseph Joffre, avoid Belgium and attack Alsace, gain support of Southern Germans, Problems: Ger. strongly unified, held high ground and dug in (trenches)
Russian Plans
Variant G, Variant A
Variant G
Russia attacks into East Prussia (Germany)
Variant A
Russia attacks Galacia (Austria-Hungary)
Elan Vital
morale of French soldiers during WWI, literally means "vital force"
Samsonov and Rennenkampf
2 key generals in the attack on East Prussia, disputed/fought with one another
Battle of Tannenburg
Samsonov vs. Rennenkampf, von Francois ordered to retreat but circles and attacks from behind, success, Russians lose 150,000 men, never invade Germany again in WWI
Battle of the Marne - 1914
In Belgium, Schlieffen Plan modified, bypass Paris (circled East of city), Paris troops led a counter attack, Parisian taxis used to transport troops to the front, Schlieffen Plan halted: Race to the Sea, trench warface
Pact of London
Allies offer territory of A-H to Italy if they join the Allied side, Italy accepts in May 1915
Erich von Falkenhayn
replaces Moltke as German Chief of Staff, cautious reputation, wanted to fight a defensive war, favored Western fronts, Hindenburg and Ludendorff want to knock out Russians in East
1915 Plan: Germany needs A-H, so create a link b/w Ottomans and Bulgarians (attack Serbia), focus on the East
British Blockade of Germany
Rivals, The Royal Navy blockades the north coast and controls the seas on the surface, Ger. stuck on Baltic Sea and coast, Brit. seized neutral food and shipping...led to...U-Boats of Germany
Lusitania
Sunk by Ger. U-boat without warning, Ger. unremorseful and released warning in American papers, America outraged and threatened war, Ger. subs restricted and paid heavy price in diplomacy
Sussex Pledge
after the Lusitania was sunk, Ger. u-boats were put on restricted submarine warfare which said: passenger ships couldn't be targeted, merchant ships couldn't be sunk until weapons were found on board, providing provisions for safety of enemy crew
Gallipoli
Winston Churchills plan - open the door to Russia through the Black Sea, needed to control Dardenelles Strait, take Gallipoli peninsula, use anzacs (colonials from Australia), failure and Turkish victory
Battle of Verdun
Salient in the line, Falkenhayn realized Ger. couldn't afford to waste men and supplies, use artillery on Verdun, battle crushed French morale, massive casualties on both sides, stalemate
Consequences: Whole generation wiped out, explains why France and Brit. passively resist Hitler's rise to power
The Sacred Way
last road to Verdun from France, supply more troops into for months, Ger. left open to continue artillery bombing
The Garden of Bayonets
story that captures the horror of WWI, Battle of Verdun
The Somme
Battle, French plead for Brit. help, new tactics used by Brit: mines, artillery shells stockpiled, Brit. attacks fail
Consequences: Whole generation wiped out, explains why France and Brit. passively resist Hitler's rise to power
Pal Divisions
new recruits, edu. and patriotic people, friends are pals in divisions together fighting for each other, Battle of the Somme
Brusilov Offensive
Take pressure off Verdun, Russian army attack A-H to increase troops morale, took out 2 A-H armies at Galicia, success, results: Falkenhayn loses job in Ger., A-H very weak
Corset Battalions
A-H/Ger. used this to halt Russian advance in Brusilov Offensive, switch armies good/bad/good/bad
Hindenburg-Ludendorff
take over after Falkenhayn for Ger., open unrestricted submarine warfare with newly dev. u-boat, wanted to knock out Brit. before America arrived
Convoys
due to unrestricted submarine warfare, American and Brit. merchant ships were surrounded by battleships for protection, mines also used
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
u-boats were used to take out English ships or anyone trading w/ Brit., started with much sinking of shipping, then declined, caused America to enter the war
Zimmerman Telegram
Germany to Mexico, invited Mex. into the war against US and promised old Mexican territory, intercepted by Brit. and sent to US, outraged Americans and caused entry into the war
Liberty Bonds
citizens bought to help fund the war and after the war the ppl made a certain percent gain (3.5-4.5%)
Selective Service Act
Draft for American soldiers, 21-30 years old
Espoinage Act
Provide direct or indirect aid to the Central Powers illegal under American Act
Sedition Act
crime for criticizing gov. policies relating to the war in America
Hindenburg Line
German mil. line near the end of the war, fell back, straightened front lines, and took high ground while building bunkers, leveled houses, forests, etc.
Philippe Petain
replaced Neville as French Commander in Chief, led no offensives, executed soldiers to get them to fight, sent a Message of Hope: the Americans are coming
Infiltration Tactics
Ger. tactics inspired by Brusilov (Russia), divide forces into 2 groups: storm troops and mop up battalions, major success
Kerensky Offensive
Alexander Kerensky led the last Russian offensive, attacked Galicia but discipline broke down and was defeated by A-H/Ger. end of the Russian army and in WWI
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russian and Ger. peace treaty, Russia gives Baltic States to Ger., pay $600, transfer food and resources, set tone for Treaty of Versailles (harsh)
T.E. Lawrence
wrote about Arabs against Turks during WWI, Brit. and worked with Arabs, mediator b/w Arabs and British, "Lawrence of Arabia"
General Edmund Allenby
Brit. General at Battle of Megiddo, victory in Palestine with Arabs
Arab Revolt
Arabs revolt against the ruling Turks of the Ottoman Empire, help from the British, victory
Invasion of Palestine
Britain push for Arab revolt, work together and defeat the Turks, Brit. gains control of some territories in the Middle East
5 Reasons Why Germany Loses (Essay)
1. British Blockade: Ger. economy sinks, no food or supplies brought in, Navy useless, led to U.S.W.
2. Slow breakdown of German allies, especially A-H, only in it for spoils if victory
3. Morale effect of US entry into war, increased Allies, decreased Germans
4. US entry led to 1918 offensives, last desperate gambles
5. British control of the seas: led to U.S.W. and American entrance, blockade set up