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World Wars Unit 2 Exam, the Start of WWI, Notes start 2/1/11, flashcards created 2/21/11

Norman Angell

Wrote "The Great Illusion" and drew the conclusion that war makes no sense: obsolete due to Europe's economies working together, war could bring disaster to own nation
Problems: Policy Makers, war is their job, war possible through speed, quick ending wars

Schlieffen Plan

Alfred von Schlieffen the German Chief of Staff, saw encirclement as an issue and targeted France and Russia, France first, avoid a two front war, France is an immediate threat
Problems: Plan violated Belgian neutrality

Plan 17

French Plan by Field Marshall Joseph Joffre, avoid Belgium and attack Alsace, gain support of Southern Germans, Problems: Ger. strongly unified, held high ground and dug in (trenches)

Russian Plans

Variant G, Variant A

Variant G

Russia attacks into East Prussia (Germany)

Variant A

Russia attacks Galacia (Austria-Hungary)

Elan Vital

morale of French soldiers during WWI, literally means "vital force"

Samsonov and Rennenkampf

2 key generals in the attack on East Prussia, disputed/fought with one another

Battle of Tannenburg

Samsonov vs. Rennenkampf, von Francois ordered to retreat but circles and attacks from behind, success, Russians lose 150,000 men, never invade Germany again in WWI

Battle of the Marne - 1914

In Belgium, Schlieffen Plan modified, bypass Paris (circled East of city), Paris troops led a counter attack, Parisian taxis used to transport troops to the front, Schlieffen Plan halted: Race to the Sea, trench warface

Pact of London

Allies offer territory of A-H to Italy if they join the Allied side, Italy accepts in May 1915

Erich von Falkenhayn

replaces Moltke as German Chief of Staff, cautious reputation, wanted to fight a defensive war, favored Western fronts, Hindenburg and Ludendorff want to knock out Russians in East
1915 Plan: Germany needs A-H, so create a link b/w Ottomans and Bulgarians (attack Serbia), focus on the East

British Blockade of Germany

Rivals, The Royal Navy blockades the north coast and controls the seas on the surface, Ger. stuck on Baltic Sea and coast, Brit. seized neutral food and shipping...led to...U-Boats of Germany


Sunk by Ger. U-boat without warning, Ger. unremorseful and released warning in American papers, America outraged and threatened war, Ger. subs restricted and paid heavy price in diplomacy

Sussex Pledge

after the Lusitania was sunk, Ger. u-boats were put on restricted submarine warfare which said: passenger ships couldn't be targeted, merchant ships couldn't be sunk until weapons were found on board, providing provisions for safety of enemy crew


Winston Churchills plan - open the door to Russia through the Black Sea, needed to control Dardenelles Strait, take Gallipoli peninsula, use anzacs (colonials from Australia), failure and Turkish victory

Battle of Verdun

Salient in the line, Falkenhayn realized Ger. couldn't afford to waste men and supplies, use artillery on Verdun, battle crushed French morale, massive casualties on both sides, stalemate
Consequences: Whole generation wiped out, explains why France and Brit. passively resist Hitler's rise to power

The Sacred Way

last road to Verdun from France, supply more troops into for months, Ger. left open to continue artillery bombing

The Garden of Bayonets

story that captures the horror of WWI, Battle of Verdun

The Somme

Battle, French plead for Brit. help, new tactics used by Brit: mines, artillery shells stockpiled, Brit. attacks fail
Consequences: Whole generation wiped out, explains why France and Brit. passively resist Hitler's rise to power

Pal Divisions

new recruits, edu. and patriotic people, friends are pals in divisions together fighting for each other, Battle of the Somme

Brusilov Offensive

Take pressure off Verdun, Russian army attack A-H to increase troops morale, took out 2 A-H armies at Galicia, success, results: Falkenhayn loses job in Ger., A-H very weak

Corset Battalions

A-H/Ger. used this to halt Russian advance in Brusilov Offensive, switch armies good/bad/good/bad


take over after Falkenhayn for Ger., open unrestricted submarine warfare with newly dev. u-boat, wanted to knock out Brit. before America arrived


due to unrestricted submarine warfare, American and Brit. merchant ships were surrounded by battleships for protection, mines also used

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

u-boats were used to take out English ships or anyone trading w/ Brit., started with much sinking of shipping, then declined, caused America to enter the war

Zimmerman Telegram

Germany to Mexico, invited Mex. into the war against US and promised old Mexican territory, intercepted by Brit. and sent to US, outraged Americans and caused entry into the war

Liberty Bonds

citizens bought to help fund the war and after the war the ppl made a certain percent gain (3.5-4.5%)

Selective Service Act

Draft for American soldiers, 21-30 years old

Espoinage Act

Provide direct or indirect aid to the Central Powers illegal under American Act

Sedition Act

crime for criticizing gov. policies relating to the war in America

Hindenburg Line

German mil. line near the end of the war, fell back, straightened front lines, and took high ground while building bunkers, leveled houses, forests, etc.

Philippe Petain

replaced Neville as French Commander in Chief, led no offensives, executed soldiers to get them to fight, sent a Message of Hope: the Americans are coming

Infiltration Tactics

Ger. tactics inspired by Brusilov (Russia), divide forces into 2 groups: storm troops and mop up battalions, major success

Kerensky Offensive

Alexander Kerensky led the last Russian offensive, attacked Galicia but discipline broke down and was defeated by A-H/Ger. end of the Russian army and in WWI

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Russian and Ger. peace treaty, Russia gives Baltic States to Ger., pay $600, transfer food and resources, set tone for Treaty of Versailles (harsh)

T.E. Lawrence

wrote about Arabs against Turks during WWI, Brit. and worked with Arabs, mediator b/w Arabs and British, "Lawrence of Arabia"

General Edmund Allenby

Brit. General at Battle of Megiddo, victory in Palestine with Arabs

Arab Revolt

Arabs revolt against the ruling Turks of the Ottoman Empire, help from the British, victory

Invasion of Palestine

Britain push for Arab revolt, work together and defeat the Turks, Brit. gains control of some territories in the Middle East

5 Reasons Why Germany Loses (Essay)

1. British Blockade: Ger. economy sinks, no food or supplies brought in, Navy useless, led to U.S.W.
2. Slow breakdown of German allies, especially A-H, only in it for spoils if victory
3. Morale effect of US entry into war, increased Allies, decreased Germans
4. US entry led to 1918 offensives, last desperate gambles
5. British control of the seas: led to U.S.W. and American entrance, blockade set up

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