6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- Short for oxidation-reduction; a chemical reaction in which electrons are lost from one substance (oxidation) and added to another (reduction). Oxidation and reduction always occur together
- The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid
- A cluster of several membrane proteins that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP
- a quantity of heat equal to 1,000 calories. Used to measure the energy content of food, it is usually called a "Calorie"
- The metabolic cycle fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration. Chemical reactions in the citric acid cycle complete the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide. The cycle occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and supplies most of the NADH molecules that carry energy to the electron transport chains. The second major stage of cellular respiration.
- An enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule
6 True/False questions
substrate-level phosphorylation → The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an organic molecule
oxidative phosphorylation → The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration
acetyl CoA → The entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
chemiosmosis → Energy-coupling mechanics that uses the energy of hydrogen ion gradients across membranes to phosphorylate ADP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells
obligate anaerobes → An organism that only carries out fermentation; such organisms cannot use oxygen and also may be poisoned by it.
intermediates → One of the compounds that form between the initial reactant and the final product in a metabolic pathway, such as between glucose and pyruvate in glycolysis