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AP Bio Cell Communication/Cycle
Terms in this set (42)
The binding of epinephrine to its receptor activates a _______.
The enzyme alpha-kinase adds ______ to proteins.
An example of a second messenger is _______.
Arrange the following in order in which they occur during signal amplification:
1. Activation of protein kinase
2. Activation of G protein
3. Activation of adenylyl cyclase
What is true about signal amplification?
A single cell surface receptor can activate many G proteins
Growth factor receptors are typically found in the _______.
In bacterial cell division, the cell divides into two nearly equal halves. This process is referred to as ___________.
The accomodation of the very long DNA strands that are part of a chromosome into the limited space of the nucleus is achieved by coiling the DNA around beads of histones into repeating subunits. These DNA-wrapped histones are called ________.
The number of chromosomes in diploid eukaryotic cells ....
varies considerably from 2 to over 1000 in different species
A scientist wants to study histones. Histones are ________________.
proteins that double-stranded DNA molecules wrap around in eukaryotes
The two copies of each type of chromosome found in normal somatic (body) cells in an organism, throughout the cell cycle, are called __________.
Before cell division of somatic cells, each chromosome must be replicated. After replication, the resulting two parts of each chromosome are held together by cohesion at the centromere. These two parts are referred to as _________.
What is the sequence of events in a typical eukaryotic cell cycle?
G1 to S to G2 to mitosis to cytokinesis
The portion of the cell cycle when the cell is growing and does not contain a replicated genome is referred to as __________.
The stage of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides to form two cells is called __________.
This stage of the cell cycle is characterized by growth and it contains a checkpoint to verify that all of the DNA has been replicated prior to mitosis.
A duplicate copy of all of the hereditary information contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells is made during what stage of the cell cycle?
What is the portion of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscope because they are not yet condensed?
Interphase is made up of what stages in the cell cycle?
Why is it so important that all of the chromosomes align on the metaphase plate during metaphase?
If they cannot, it suggests they aren't properly attached to the spindle microtubules, and thus won't separate properly during anaphase.
The progress of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated primarily by what proteins?
At what checkpoint(s) does the cell arrest in response to DNA damage?
G1/S and G2/M
If you were to think of the cell as a car, and mitosis as a process that drives that car to go, what would be a good analogy for a cell that has a mutation in both copies of a tumor-suppressor gene?
the brake pedal of a car does not work at all
This protein or protein complex functions in the cell to stop cell division if the cell has experienced extensive DNA damage.
The protein Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) plays a role in specifying the identity of digits (such as fingers and toes) in mammals. Several digits arise directly from cells that both express and respond to secreted SHH. What type of signaling would this be considered?
You have come this far into studying for AP Biology. Which of the following will you do to take care of yourself and take a break?
A) take a nap
B) get out of the house for once
C) listen to some music
D) drink water and eat something
All of the above cuz u deserve it
What is the function of a protein kinase?
To add phosphate groups onto proteins
What property defines most ligands for intracellular receptors?
They are lipid-soluable
A small number of cell surface receptors can ultimately generate a large intracellular response due to activation of kinase cascades. This is referred to as ________.
What is the elongated extension of a neuron that nerve impulses travel along?
Rapid inward diffusion of Na+ produces a dramatic change in membrane potential. What is this event called?
The membrane of a resting neuron is most permeable to what ion?
What characteristics are true for an action potential?
- a threshold potential must be exceeded for an action potential to occur
- a stimulus either produces a full action potential or none at all
- during the refractory period, it is less likely that stimuli can produce another action potential
Three-quarters of the substantial amount of energy consumed by the brain is used to run a single molecular machine that maintains the resting potential of neurons. What is this machine called?
What are the source of antibody-producing cells?
The surface defenses of the body consist of the _______ and the mucous membranes lining the digestive and respiratory tracts.
You sit next to Uncle Ed, an immunologist, at Thanksgiving dinner. "I'm a 'big eater'", he says, "just like the cells I study." What are the large cells that engulf pathogens that Uncle Ed works with?
What is the name for molecules that provoke a specific immune response?
What initiates the immune response?
helper T cells
What is the most fundamental difference between the innate immune system and the acquired immune system?
the way in which pathogens are recognized
The human skeleton is a typical vertebrate __________.
Congratulations, you have completed the Cell Communication/Cell Cycle quizlet. What will you do to reward yourself?
A) go out with friends
B) get ice cream
C) play video games
E) take a bubble bath
The answer is all of the above, because you deserve to go have some fun love u take care of urself
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