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Lab Exercise 1: The Blood
Terms in this set (44)
What is blood classified as?
What form is blood in?
Fluid or liquid
What is blood made up of?
Formed elements (cells) and extracellular matrix (plasma)
What are the formed elements in blood?
Red blood cells, White blood cells, and platelets
What are is the scientific name for RBCs?
What are is the scientific name for WBCs?
What are is the scientific name for platelets?
Where is the majority of formed elements produced?
In the red bone marrow
What is plasma made up of?
90% water with other solute components such as blood proteins, wastes, hormones, nutrients, and electrolytes
What do RBCs look like?
they are most numerous and shaped like biconcave discs or donuts without holes
What do RBCs do?
they transport oxygen to tissues and carry carbon dioxide away
What is hemoglobin?
an iron-containing protein with a strong attraction for oxygen--this is what give RBCs their reddish color
What is the structure of RBCs and why?
they must be flexible to pass through capillaries to deliver oxygen to remote tissues
What are capillaries?
What allows RBCs to bend without breaking?
actin and spectrin (cytoplasmic proteins)
What is the average life of a RBC?
120 days before the cell breaks and dies
What is sickle cell anemia?
mutates hemoglobin results in crescent shaped cells with increased rigidity and a decreased oxygen carrying capacity
What are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia?
fatigue, joint pain, and organ damage
What is the specific trait of WBCs?
They are generally larger but much less numerous than RBCs
What do WBCs do?
they are transient cells that move in and out of the vessels to provide immune functions for the body's tissue based on needs
What are the two types of WBCs?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
What do granulocytes look like?
prominent differentially staining granules and bilobed or multilobed nuclei--usually end in 'phil
'philled with granules
What do agranulocytes look like?
contain little to no visible granules and relatively normal shaped nuclei--usually end in 'cyte
What are the three types of granulocytes?
nuetrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What are the two types of agranulocytes?
lympocytes and monocytes
From most abundant to to least abundant the common pneumonic is?
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
From most abundant to least abundant the pneumonic stands for what?
Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils
What does a total WBC count reveal?
The total number of WBCs per unit volume
What does it mean if the TWBC count is abnormally elevated?
What does it mean if the TWBC count is abnormally low?
What does a differential WBC test reveal?
it measures the perventage of relative types of white cells
What is the DWBC test useful for?
Abnormalities in the percentage of white cells are helpful in indicating the source of pathology
An example: elevated B lymphocyte levels may indicate what?
a bacterial infection
What might elevated eosinophil levels indicate?
allergens or a parasitic infection
What is leukocytosis and what could it mean?
abnormally high levels of WBCs
--could mean an infection, allergies, and emotional stress ro more serious conditions such as leukemia
What is leukopenia and what could it mean?
abnormally low levels of WBCs
--could mean an autoimmune or bone marrow disorder, radiation and chemotherapy, some medications, and HIV/AIDS to name a few
What is the structure and function of a Neutrophil?
Granules give a neutral pink color
Small blue or red-staining granules; 3-5 lobed nuclei
Phagocytic; respond to acute infections
What is the structure and function of a Basophil?
big (granules); blue basophil
Structure: blue-staining large granules; U or s-shaped nuclei
Release histamine (vasodilator) involved in inflammation; release heparin (blood thinner); major role in allergic reactions
What is the structure and function of a Eosinophil?
Granules have "erange" color
Structure: Large red to orange-staining granules; bilobed nuclei
Function: attack parasites and respond to allergens
What is the structure and function of Lymphocyte?
Little cell with Large nuclei
--Contains T Cells and B Cells
Structure: Smallest leukocytes; spherical or dented large, dark-staining nuclei, thin rim of cytoplasm
Intracellular infections--parasitic & viral; cancer
Extracellular infections--bacteria, toxins, and venoms; production of antibodies
What is the structure and function of a Monocyte?
Largest leukocytes: kidney shaped, dark-staining nuclei; Thick rim of cytoplasm
Phagocytic; respond to chronic infections
What do Thrombocytes (platelets) do?
Promote hemostasis (the prevention of blood loss)
What exactly are platelets?
not truly cells--cytoplasmic fragments of larger multinucleated marrow cells called megakaryocytes
How many and how big are platelets?
They are smaller than erythrocytes and outnumber leukocytes and stain bluish
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