Exercise 2: The Heart
Terms in this set (59)
What is the purpose of the heart?
It serves as a muscular pump or motor for the cardiovascular system.
How large is the heart?
It is fist sized
Where does the heart sit?
In the mediastinum
--it is posterior to the sternum and medial to the lungs
--in thoracic cavity between 2nd and 6th rib
What is the superior portion of the heart and which way does it tilt?
base; tilts towards the right
What does the base serve as an attachment point for?
The great vessels (ex. the aorta, the pulmonary trunk, and the superior and inferior vena cava)
What is the inferior portion of the heart and which way does it tilt?
apex; projects towards the left side of the body
For protection, the heart is enclosed in a sack called the _______.
What are the two layers that the pericardium consists of?
--outer parietal layer
--inner visceral layer
What does the outer parietal layer consist of?
--inner serious lining
--outer fibrous layer
What is the purpose of the inner visceral layer?
--it makes contact with the heart, wrapping it in a thin serous sack
What does the serous membranes in the inner visceral layer produce?
--watery fluid that allows friction-free movement of the heart with each beat
What is the inflammation of the serous layer of the membrane sack surrounding the heart?
What does pericarditis cause and what are the symptoms?
--they rub against each other creating friction
--symptoms are stabbing pain in the middle of the back of the chest and a dry cough
--treatment is anti-inflammatories
What are the muscular walls of the heart called?
What is the myocardium composed of?
--spirally arranged specialized muscle cells
What are these muscle cells?
What are the cardiac myocytes composed of?
intertwined with dense connective tissue
What is this connective tissue?
What does the connective tissue do?
it strengthens the heart's walls and the connections with the great vessels
--it also insulates regions of the heart promoting its rhythmic beat
How many chambers are in the heart?
--two superior atria
--two inferior ventricles
What are the chambers lined with?
What are the right and left atria divided by?
What is the ear-like appendage in each atrium called?
auricle, which is located on its superior surface that increases the volume of the chamber
What are the right and left ventricles divided by?
The interventricular septum
What do the atrioventricular (AV) valves do?
prevent the backward flow of blood when the ventricles contract
What do the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves do?
they direct blood toward the vessels and away from the heart
What valves are tricuspid?
right AV valve, pulmonary, and aortic semilunar valves
What does tricuspid mean?
having three flaps or cusps made of fibrous connective tissue and covered with epithelium
What valve is bicuspid and what is it's specific name?
right AV valve, the mitral valve
What are the 'cuspid flaps tied down by?
"tied" down to the walls of the ventricles via tough connective tissue strands
What are the tissue strands called?
Chordae tendineae aka heart strings
What are the chordae tendinaea attached to?
What are papillary muscles?
pillar-like muscles that project into the ventricles from the myocardial walls
What do the papillary muscles do?
just before the ventricles begin to contract, these muscles pull on the "heart strings" and draw the valve cusps up into the atria
Unlike the AV valves, how do the semilunar valves open and close?
They close with pressure changes between ventricles and the corresponding great vessels but have no anchoring system like the chordae tendineae
What is mitral valve prolapse?
What the cusps of the L AV valve bulge upward into the atria
What does mitral valve prolapse result in?
the backward flow of blood into the atrium--called regurgitation
How is regurgitation in the mitral valvedetected?
by a murmur with a stephoscope
If the condition of regurgitation is significant what may it cause?
Lightheadedness, fatigue, shortness of breath
What are the treatment options for mitral valve prolapse?
no intervention, to medication, or in most severe cases, surgery
What do the pulmonary arteries do?
transport de-oxygenated blood to the lungs from the right side of the heart to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
What are the pulmonary veins for?
they transport oxygenated blood back to the left side of the heart
What is the circulatory route that serves to refresh blood called?
What is systemic circulation?
Transports oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the body and back to the heart again
--it also is what provides nutrients to the body tissues
What is the hearts own circulatory system called and why does it have its own?
Coronary circulatory system
--because of its continuous work schedule the hearts need is great and constant
Timing of the coronary circulatory flow is _______ to that of systemic flow.
When the ventricles contract to eject blood to the great vessels ( this is called what?) (and what are the coronary vessels doing?)
systole and they are constricted
The coronary vessels remain unfilles until the ventricles relax (which is called what?) (and what are the coronary vessels doing?)
diastole and they are dilating
As the ventricles relax, blood flow through the coronary circulatory system do what?
How is blood supplied to the myocardium?
by the right and left coronary arteries
Where are the right and left coronary arteries located?
They extend from the base of the aorta
What does the right coronary artery supply?
the posterior ventricle and the right lateral myocardium
By what two branches does the RCA supply them?
the posterior interventricular and the marginal arteries
How does the anterior ventricular walls receive blood?
from the anterior interventricular artery
What is the interventricular artery aka?
The left anterior descending (LAD) artery
How does the left side of the heart receive blood?
by the circumflex artery
What drains deoxygenated blood from the myocardium and sends it back into the right atrium through and enlarged, flattened vessel?
the great, middle, and small cardiac veins
What are the enlarges, flattened vessles on the posterior side of the heart calles?
What grooves are these arteries in?
sulcus (sulci) coronary and etc.
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