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Chapter 18: The Circulatory System (Blood)
Terms in this set (115)
What does the circulatory system consist of?
blood, the heart, and blood vessels
What does the cardiovascular system consist of?
only to the heart and the blood vessels
What is hematology?
the study of blood
What are the functions of the circulatory system?
What does the circulatory system transport?
--transports respiratory gases, nutrients, metabolic wastes, stem cells, and hormones
What does the circulatory system protect?
--protection through clotting mechanisms and immune defenses (white blood cells and antibodies)
What does the circulatory system regulate?
--regulates body pH, fluid distribution, and temperature
What is blood?
4-6 Liters of a specialized liquid connective tissue
_____ is a salt-water-and protein solution and is how much percent of blood?
What are formed elements and how much percent of blood?
cells and cell fragments
Is blood more dense or less dense than water?
It is viscous (more dense)
What is the temperature of blood?
38 degrees C or 100.4 degrees F
What is the pH of blood?
In a hematocrit what is the middle layer of WBCs and platelets called?
a buffy coat
What is a normal males hematocrit?
45% to 52%
What is a normal females hematocrit?
37% to 48%
Plasma is what percent water?
What else does plasma consist of?
proteins (7%), nutrients, electrolytes, gases, nitrogenous wastes, and hormones
What do plasma proteins play a role in?
clotting, defense, and transport of others solutes (carrier proteins)
What is the major component of blood clots?
Fibrinogen that turns into fibrin
What i the most abundant and smallest protein in the plasma?
Where is albumin synthesized?
in the liver
What does albumin significantly affect?
blood volume, pressure and flow
--also important role is a carrier molecule and buffers the pH of plasma
What is the second most abundant plasma protein and what does it do?
--control blood osmotic pressure and act as carrier molecules
What is the most abundant nitrogenous waste in the plasma?
What nutrients does the plasma contain and where is absorbed by?
glucose (you hear of blood glucose), amino acids, fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, vitamins, and minerals
--absorbed by the digestive tract
What is the resistance of a fluid to flow, due to the cohesion of its particles (thickness)?
How many more times thicker is blood than water?
What determines the flow of blood?
What is the total molarity of dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood vessel wall?
What happens to blood volume and pressure if the blood osmolarity is high?
It absorbs H20 which will increase volume and pressure
What happens to blood volume and pressure if the blood osmolarity is low?
it will make too much H20 remain in the tissues which will cause edema and low blood pressure
What is the process by which the formed elements of blood develop?
hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
Where are red blood cells formed in adults?
in red bone marrow
Where are lymphocytes produced?
in lymphatic tissues
Where do formed elements mature?
bone marrow or lymphoid tissue
What is the progenitor of all the other red bone marrow cells?
hemopoietic stem cell (HSC)
What is the HSC that differentiate into cells called?
colony-forming units (CFUs)
What do CFUs do?
produce classes of formed elements
What is the function of RBCs?
carry O2 from the lungs to the tissues of the body and to pick up CO2 from the tissues and unload it to the lungs
What is the appearance of RBCs?
bi-concave discs that don't have a nucleus or any organelles
What do RBCs rely on for energy?
What does the cytoplasm of RBCs consist of?
hemoglobin (gives RBC the red color and carry oxygen)
What does the plasma membrance have on its outer surface that determines blood type?
what cytoskeletal proteins is the inner surface made up of that give RBCs their membrance resilience and durability? (aka can fit in small capillaries)
actin and spectrin*****
What does hemoglobin do?
carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
How molecules of Hgb are in one RBC?
What does a Hgb consist of?
4 protein chains
What are these protein chains called?
globins (2 alpha and 2 beta)
What does each chain consist of ?
a iron containing heme center that binds 1 molecule of O2
What is the production of RBCs and normally takes 3-5 days
Where does erythropoiesis begin?
in the bone marroe when a hemopoietin stem-cell (HSC) becomes an erythrocyte colony-forming unit (ECFU), which has receptors for the hormone erythropoietin (EPO)
Name the order of erythropoiesis
Hemopoietic stem cell--> colony-forming unit-->(precursor cells) erythroblast-->reticulocyte-->(mature cell) erythrocyte
Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates ECFU to trandform into what?
--which multiply and synthesize hemoglobin
The nucleus shrivels and is discharged, making the cell a what?
What do the reticulocytes do next?
They leave the marrow and enter the blood to become mature erythrocytes
How long do RBCs live?
What is the rate that new mature cells enter the circulation?
rate of at least 2 million/second
--it balances the equally high rate of RBC destruction
How is the RBC count maintained?
Old RBC rupture and it is called what?
Why do RBCs rupture?
due to spectrin & actin deterioration and are removed from the circulation and destroyed
What destroys the RBCs?
macrophages in the spleen and liver
What happens to the breakdown products after the RBC is destroyed?
they are recycled
What is the condition of insufficient RBCs or hemoglobin (quality or quantity)?
What is Anemia the result of?
most often the result of low iron intake, hemolysis, autoimmune disease, blood loss, or lack of production in the bone marrow
What is the condition of excess number of RBCs?
What is the reason for polycythemia?
-occurs in response to hypoxia, shots of EPO, smoking, or dehydration
What is hypoxia?
natural "blood doping" is training at high altitudes
What is a shot of EPO?
Why does smoking cause polycythemia?
What is sickle-cell disease?
a hereditary hemoglobin defect
What happens from sickle-cell disease?
--faulty HbS does not bind oxygen well and at low oxygen, RBCs take on a rigis, sickle shape
What do sickled RBC's cause?
agglutination and clog small blood vessels, causing pain and hypoxemia
What does hypoxemia trigger?
more sickling which is positive feedback
What does chronic hypoxemia cause?
fatigue, weakness, mental deficiency, and deterioration of the heart and other organs
What happens to life expectancy if one has sickle cell anemia?
it is shortened
What do red cells and all cells in the body have on them?
proteins, glycoproteins, and glycolipids
What do these things on them do?
they act as antigens or surface markers
Antigens enable the body to do what?
distinguish its own cells from foreign matter
What happens when the body detects a foreign antigen?
antibodies are secreted and bind to the foreign antigens, marking them for destruction
What is when each antibody molecule binds to two or more antigens, sticking them together?
What forms the basis of the ABO blood group system?
the presence or absence of the A and B red cell antigens
What other red cell antigen does 85% of the population have and comprises another important blood grouping?
What does the plasma contain when it comes to ABO groups?
the anti-ABO antibodies of a type opposite to the ABO antigen on the red cell surface
What do they give to mothers that are Rh negative?
What are AB individuals known as?
(rarest) "universal recipients"
--no A or B antibodies
What are O individuals known as?
(most common) "universal donor"
--no antigens on surface
STUDY ALL LEUKOCYTES
FROM LAB NOTECARDS
An increase in lymphocytes is called what and what does it often represent?
--represents acute viral infection
What disorder is when any WBC count > 10,000 and usually indicated an infection, allergy or disease?
What disorder is when any WBC count is < 5,000 and usually indicated a disease (AIDS, chemotherapy, etc.)?
What are small fragments of marrow megakaryocytes?
What do platelets contain?
lysosomes, mitochondria, microtubules, and microfilaments
What do platelets secrete to prevent blood loss from broken vessels?
vasoconstrictors and procoagulants
What do platelets form?
What do platelets secrete that stimulate mitosis in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells to repair blood vessels?
What are huge cells (visible to the naked eye) that live in the red bone marrow?
They sprout long tendrils called what into sinusoids that break in what as they travel in the blood?
proplatelets and platelets
How long do platelets circulate?
about 10 days
What is the sequence of responses that stops bleeding?
What are the three mechanisms that reduce blood loss?
1. vascular spasm
2. platelets plug formation
3. blood clotting (coagulation)
Where fo vascular spasms occur?
they occur as damaged blood vessels constrict immediately
How does blood clotting or coagulation occur?
in a cascading fashion whereby one activated clotting protein triggers the next step in the process and so on
What is the objective of blood clotting?
to convert plasma protein fibrinogen into fibrin
What is fibrin?
a sticky protein that adheres to the vessel wall and collects blood cells and platelets
What are the 2 reaction pathways to coagulation?
extrinsic and intrinsic pathway
What happens during extrinisic pathway?
initiated by clotting factors released by the damaged vessel and tissure
What happens during the intrinsic pathway?
more complex, occurs more slowly (3-6 min) and uses only clotting factors found in the blood
What will eventually happen to blood clots?
How does clot retraction occur?
--when the spinous pseudopods of the platelets adhere to strands of fibrin and contract
--this pulls edges of the damages vessel together
What do the platelets and endothelial cells then secrete that stimulates fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells to multiply and repair the vessel?
platelet-derived growth factor
What is clotting in an unbroken blood vessel (usually a vein) called?
What is the clot itself called?
What is it called when a thrombus becomes dislodged and it swept away and it transported by the blood stream?
What is the worst cases of an emboli obstucting a blood vessel and causing ishemia to the tissue beds?
pulmonary embolism or stroke
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