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BIO TWO FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (60)
What is true of macroevolution?
a. it is defined as the evolution of microscopic organisms into organisms that can be seen with the naked eye
b. it is the same as microevolution
c. it is the conceptual link between irritability and adaption
d. it is evolution above the species level
e. it is defined as a change in allele or gene frequency over the course of many generations
d. it is evolution above species level
which of the various species concepts distinguishes two species based on the degree of genetic exchange between their gene pools?
you are confronted with a box of preserve grasshoppers of various species that are new to science and have not been described. your assignment is to separate them into species. there is no accompanying information as to where or when they were collected. which species concept will you have to use?
Dog breeders maintain the purity of breeds by keeping dogs of different breeds apart when they are fertile. This kind of isolation is most similar to which of the following reproductive isolating mechanisms?
a. reduced hybrid fertility
b mechanical isolation
c. habitat isolation
d. gamete isolation
e. hybrid breakdown
Two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate, but the offspring fail to develop and hatch. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?
a. the postzygotic barrier called hybrid invialbility
b. the prezygotic barrier called the temporal isolation
c. the prezygotic barrier called gamete isolation
d. the prezygotic barrier called hybrid sterility
the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability
Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring. These species shared a common ancestor recently (in geologic time) and have a high degree of genetic similarity, although their anatomies vary widely. Judging from this evidence, which two species concepts are most likely to place dogs and wolves together into a single species?
a. biological and phylogenetic
b. ecological and morphological
c. biological and morphological
d. ecological and phylogenetic
e. morphological and phylogenetic
biological and phylogenetic
what are some observations that helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?
species diversity declines farther from the equator, fewer species live on islands than on the nearest continents, birds live on islands located farther form the mainland than the birds' maximum nonstop flight distance, south american temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of south america than to the temperate plants of europe
Charles Lyell's principle of uniformitarianism....? (influences)
helped Darwin understand how fossils of marine organisms could end up in the andes mountains, states that mechanisms of geological change are relatively constant over time, influenced darwin's ideas by allowing him to think in a time scale far greater than 5 thousand years
what is Charles Lyell's principle of uniformitarianism?
Lyell's version of geology came to be known as uniformitarianism, because of his fierce insistence that the processes that alter the Earth are uniform through time. Like Hutton, Lyell viewed the history of Earth as being vast and directionless. ... Lyell crafted a powerful lens for viewing the history of the Earth.
Darwin's four fundamental observations that lead to natural selection
The four key points of Darwin's Theory of Evolution are: individuals of a species are not identical; traits are passed from generation to generation; more offspring are born than can survive; and only the survivors of the competition for resources will reproduce.
requirements for natural selection to occur
Four conditions are needed for natural selection to occur: reproduction, heredity, variation in fitness or organisms, variation in individual characters among members of the population
fitness can be defined as....
the # of offspring left by an individual to the next gen.
natural selection changes allele frequencies because some ------ survive and reproduce better than others
organisms are well-adapted to the environments in which they live because...
of the evolutionary mechanism known as natural selection
what is an example of a vestigial character
non-functional eyes of cavefish
what is a vestigial character
A "vestigial structure" or "vestigial organ" is an anatomical feature or behavior that no longer seems to have a purpose in the current form of an organism of the given species. Often, these vestigial structures were organs that performed some important function in the organism at one point in the past.
give an example of a pair of homologous structures
spore-producing structures on two related species of fungi
What is Homolgous structure
homologous structures pertain to the structures in different species with a common ancestor or developmental origin. Homologous structures may not necessarily perform the same function. For instance, the forelimbs of humans and bats are homologous structures.
an example of a continuous or quantitative trait is...
the thickness of the shell of flat periwinkles living along the new england coast
what is a continuous/quantitative trait
a heritable feature that varies continuously over a range rather than an either or fashion
which type of selection is observed when breeding the fastest possible racehorses?
What is directional selection?
in population genetics, directional selection, or positive selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype. (book def: natural selection in which individuals at one end of the phenotype range survive or reproduce more successfully than do other individuals)
what does is mean when an allele becomes "fixed"?
it has a frequency in the population of 1.0
Define genetic drift
random change in allele frequency. effects are more pronounced in small populations
Define gene flow
the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another
What is the bottleneck effect?
Genetic drift that occurs when the size of a population is reduced, as by a natural disaster or human actions. Typically, the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
What is nondisjunction?
An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other.
biological species concept
Definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but are not able to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other populations.
according to the bio species concept, why are salmon and trout dif species?
an inability to produce viable offspring (together)
intersexual selection v intrasexual selection
intra: direct competition (males winning females)
inter: mate choice (usually by female)
what term is used to describe all the unique alleles for every trait for all individuals within a population?
sexy son hypothesis v honest advertising hypothesis v good gene hypothesis
four major steps to life from nonlife
1. formation of small organic molecules
2. making polymers
3. formation of plasma membrane
4. heredity (self replicating molecules)
gases of earth's prelife atmosphere
probably mostly co2 and hydrogen. very little to no o2
approximately when did the first prokaryotic cells appear in the fossil record?
about 3.9-3.5 billion years ago
what does the cambrian explosion refer to
the massive and sudden increase in diversity of animal life shown in the fossil record at the beginning of the Paleozoic era
which biological molecules was most likely the 1st hereditary material?
which is more stable RNA or DNA
which bio molecule is more likely to catalyze metabolic reactions (more enzyme like)
which extinction in earth's history involved a loss of non-avian dinosaur species? due to the high concentrations of iridium in strata form this period, geologists hypothesize this event was caused by an asteroid impact
1. first biological monomers
2. first biological polymers
3. first prokaryotic cells
4. first eukaryotic cells
5. first multicelluar organisms
Chronological events 2:
1. First plasma membranes
2. first photosynthetic organisms
3. atmospheric organisms
4. first organisms to use aerobic cellular respiration
5. first land plants
a mutualistic relationship between an algae an a fungus is...
as decomposers, fungi convert
inorganic carbon molecules from dead organisms to organic carbon molecules
specialized hyphae in mycorrhizal fungi that grow between, not into, roots cells of their plant symbionts are called
which processe leads to heterokaryotic hyphae in fungae?
what is plasmogamy
in fungi, the fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from 2 individuals; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction followed later by karyogamy
two characteristics all fungi share
cell walls composed of chitin and mycelium composed of hyphae
how do fungi acquire nutrients?
fungi grow on or in their source of organic carbon, secrete enzymes, and absorb nutrition
what is a coelom?
a sealed internal body cavity that allows the organs within to grow and move independent of the ectoderm
two characteristics all metazoans share in common
ingestive and heterotrophic
pair of terms to describe characteristics that are shared by some (most?) animals
bilateral symmetry and triploblastic
omnivore and detritivore are both terms associated with...
animal feeding habits
what is incomplete metamorphosis
incomplete metamorphosis is a type of metamorphosis in which an insect hatches from an egg and then goes through several nymphal stages. ... At the final nymphal stage the insect then moults into the adult form. The adult form is often only distinguishable from the nymph by size and the presence of wings.
craniation and the development of a jaw were important evolutionary novelties most directly associated with...
more complex feeding habits
which group includes the closest relatives to terrestrial chordates
lobe-finned fishes (class sarcoptergii)
Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.
Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade.
the four traits that all chordates demonstrate for some portion of their life cycle are...
1. hollow, dorsal nerve cord
3. pharyngeal gill slits
4. muscular post anal tail
a difference between amphibians and reptiles is that...
reptiles utilize an amniotic egg that can be laid in a fully terrestrial habitat
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology 2; Exam 3; Plants
Ch. 27 HW
Module 5: Keystone Predators
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