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41 terms

Chapter 10 Thinking/Language

STUDY
PLAY
Cognition
all the mental activities associated with processing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
Concepts
mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people
heirarchies
to simplify things further we organize concepts into ____.
prototypes
a mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category
Oliver Corneille
found memory shifts after showing belgian students ethnically mixed faces.
Algorithm
a step by step procedure that guarantees a solution
Heuristics
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions
insight
Jognny Appleton displayed insight when he figured out how to save a young robin that had fallen into a narrow 30 inch deep hole in a cement block wall. Johnny's solution was to slowly pour sand in the hole.
Mark Jung-Beeman, Johm Kounious, and Edward Bowden
identified brain activity associated with sudden flashes of insight. The sudden insight showed a burst of activity in the right temporal lobe.
confirmation bias
a tendancy to search for info that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to swee a jproblem from a fresh perspective is a true impediment to problem solving
mental set
refers to our tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what has worked for us previously
funtional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; and impediment to problem solving
The representative heuristic
the liklihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent info.
The Availability Heuristic
estimating the liklihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind we presume such events are common.
over confidence
a tendancy to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgements
Kahneman and Tversky
ran a study over confidence: they asked people to answer questions with a wide enough range to include the actual answer. Most answered incorrect but were certain they were correct
Framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issure is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.
Belief Bias
the tendancy for one's pre existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or vice versa
The Belief Perseverance phenomenon
our tendancy to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence.
Phonemes
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word. combos of two or more phonemes
grammar
a sustem of rules in a given language that enables us to communicate with and undertstand others
semantics
the set of rules we sue to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and even sentences.
syntax
refers to the rused we use to order words into sentences
receptive language
babies' ability to comprehend speech
Babbling stage
begins at about 4 months of age, the stage of speech develpment in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the house hold language
One-word-stage
the stage in speech development from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word-stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech
early speach stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" usually mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxillary words.
Skinner: Operant Learning/Nature
believed that we can explain language development with familiar learning principals, such as association; imitation; and reinforcement
Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar/Nurture
children acquire untaught words and grammar at a rate of extraordinary to be explained soley by learning principles
Jenny Saffron
exposed 8 month old infants to a computer voice speaking an unproken, monotone string of nonsense syllables. The infants were able to recognize 3 syllable sequences that appeared repeatedly
critical period
childhood is the period for mastering language
Jaqueline Johnson and Elissa Newport
tested Korean and Chinese Imigrants on an english grammar test, requiring them to ID each of 276 sentences is gramatically correct or incorrect. Those who immigrated as children performed better.
Linguist Determination
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Michael Ross, Elaine Xun, and Anne Wilson
invited china born, bilingual students to describe themselves in english or Chinese. English expressed mostly positive self-statements and moods. Chinese reported more agreement with values and roughly equal positive and negative self-statements and moods
Bilingual Advantage
children who learn o inhibit one language while using their other language are also better able to inhibit their attention to irrelevant info.
Georgia Nigro
had half a group throw 24 darts and the other half practice mentally and then had them all throw 24 darts. The ones who practiced mentally performed better.
Kohler
observed that chimps display animal cognition when Sultan the chimp solved a basic problem