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Terms in this set (37)
What are the General Functions of the Nervous System?
To maintain body homeostasis with electrical signals, provide for sensation, higher mental functioning, and emotion response, and activate muscles and glands.
Explain the structural classification of the nervous system
Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The PNS is divided into somatic and autonomic branches. Autonomic contains the Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
Explain the functional classification of the nervous system
There are sensory neurons which carry information to the CNS and motor neurons which carry information from the CNS
Distinguish between the central and peripheral nervous system
CNS contains the Brain and Spinal cord; interprets information.
PNS sends and receives information from the CNS
List the different types of glial cells and the functions of each type
Astrocytes- protect nerves from harmful substances in the blood.
Microglia- phagocytes that dispose of dead cells
Ependymal cells- circulate CSF
Oligodendrocytes- responsible for myelin sheaths
Schwann cells- creates myelin sheaths in the PNS
Satalite cells- act as protective cushioning cells
What is the main function of a neuron?
highly specialized to transmit messages from one part of the body to another
What are the three functional classifications of neurons?
afferent, efferent, and interneurons.
Define reflex arc and list it's elements.
Reflex arcs are reflexes that occur over neural pathways. Sensory receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, and effector organ.
What are the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres?
Parietal lobe holds somatic sensory area. Occipital lobe holds visual area. Temporal lobe holds auditory area. Frontal lobe holds primary motor area. Broca's area involved in speach. Corpus callosum connects the hemispheres.
What are the functions of the major regions of the diencephalon?
Thalamus is a relay station for sensory impulses. Hypothalamus regulates body temperature, balance, and metabolism, houses limbic system. Epithalamus holds the choroid plexus which form CSF.
What are the functions of the major regions of the brain stem?
Cerebral peduncles convey impulses. Corpora Quadrigemina are reflex centers involved in vision and hearing. Pons control breathing. Medulla Oblongata controls heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting. Reticular Formation has motor control of visceral organs, RAS controls awake sleep cycles.
What are the functions of the major regions of the cerebellum?
Involved in fine motor control.
Name three meningeal layers and state the functions of each.
Dura mater, Pia mater, Arachnoid mater. All cover and protect CNS structures.
What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier?
CSF protects fragile nervous tissue from trauma. The blood-brain barrier separates neurons from blood borne substances.
List the two functions of the spinal cord.
Major reflex center, two way conduction pathway to and from brain.
Cranial Nerve I. (name and major function)
Olfactory- sense of smell.
Cranial Nerve II. (name and major function)
Optic- sense of vision.
Cranial Nerve III. (name and major function)
Ocularmotor- moderates lens shape and pupil size.
Cranial Nerve IV. (name and major function)
Trochlear- moves superior oblique to orbit.
Cranial Nerve V. (name and major function)
Trigeminal- sense from skin of face and mucosa of nose, chewing muscles.
Cranial Nerve VI. (name and major function)
Abducens- rolls eye laterally.
Cranial Nerve VII. (name and major function)
Facial- sense of taste, moves expressive facial muscles.
Cranial Nerve VIII. (name and major function)
Vestibulocochlear- sense of balance
Cranial Nerve IX. (name and major function)
Glossopharyngeal- motor for pharynx, sense from anterior tongue and carotid artery
Cranial Nerve X. (name and major function)
Vagus- sense from pharynx, parasympathetic motor to thoracic viscera
Cranial Nerve XI. (name and major function)
Accessory- motor for sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
Cranial Nerve XII. (name and major function)
Hypoglossal- sense and motor for tongue
Name the first major nerve plexuses and list a major nerve.
Name the second major nerve plexuses and list a major nerve.
Brachial- axillary, radial, median, musculocutaneous, and ulnar
Name the third major nerve plexuses and list a major nerve.
Lumbar- femoral and obturator
Name the fourth major nerve plexuses and list a major nerve.
Sacral- Sciatic (splits to common fibular and tibial nerves), superior and inferior gluteal.
Explain the function of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
Fight or flight system. Responds to unusual stimulus (exercise, excitement, energy)
Explain the function of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
Resting and Digesting system. Maintains daily necessary bodily functions (digestion, defecation, diuresis)
Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the heart
Parasym. decreases heart rate while sym. increases heart rate and force of heart beat
Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the lungs
parasym. constricts bronchioles while sym. dilates bronchioles
Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the digestive system
Parasym. increases smooth muscle mobility and secretion of DS glands while sym. decreases activity of DS and constricts DS sphincter
Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the blood vessles
Parasym. has no effect on most blood vessels while sym. constricts blood vessels in viscera and skin and dilates those in skeletal muscle and heart