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48 terms

Ch. 12 Diseases and Disorders

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asphyxia
absence of respiratory ventilation; suffication
asthma
condition of the lungs characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs producing symptoms wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing; caused by the local release of factors during an allergic response
atelectasis
absence of gas in the lungs due to a failure of alveolar expansion; also called collapsed lung
bronchiectasis
dilation of the bronchi, which may result when chronic inflammation destroys the smooth muscle in the bronchial walls
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi; the acute form is often due to viral or bacterial infection, while the chronic form is often due to air pollution or smoking and is part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
bronchogenic carcinoma
cancer that originates in the bronchi
bronchopneumonia
acute inflammation of the smaller bronchial tubes, bronchioles, and alveoli
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a group of disorders (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and bronchospasm) associated with the obstruction of the bronchial airflow; usually a result of inhaling tobacco for many years
coccidioidomycosis or valley fever
fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract and lungs that often spreads to other organs; caused by inhaling dust that contains spores of Coccidiodes immunitis
cor pulmonale
disease of the heart that is caused by chronic lung disease, such as emphysema;
coryza
common viral head cold
croup
disease of infants and young children; caused by acute obstruction of the larynx and characterized by a hoarse cough
cystic fibrosis (CF)
hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract and elsewhere
deviated septum
the nasal septum that devides the two nasal cavities is not median, creating one cavity that is larger that the other
diaphragmatocele (diaphragmatic hernia)
protrusion of the stomach and/or intestine through the diaphragm; can interfere with breathing
emphysema
chronic lung disease characterized by enlarged alveoli and damaged respiratory membrane; symptoms include apnea, a barrel chest due to labored breathing, and gradual deterioration due to chronic hypoxemia
epiglottitis
inflammation of the epiglottis; often results from bacterial infection and may lead to airway obstruction, especially among children
insomnia
inability to sleep
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis
chronic inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; the acute form is called croup
legionellosis
form of pnemonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumonphilia
nasopharyngitis
inflammation of the nose and pharynx
obstructive sleep apnea or OSA
collapse of the pharynx during sleep; results in airway obstruction and absence of breathing
pansinusitis
inflammation of all paranasal sinuses on one or both sides of the face
pertussis or whooping cough
acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; produces spasmodic coughing. Noise is caused when the larynx spasms
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
pleural effusion
escape of fluid into the pleural cavity during inflammation; results in compression of the underlying part of the affected lung
pleuritis or pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae
pneumatocele or pneumocele
hernia of the lung, in which the lung protrudes through an opening in the chest
pneumoconiosis
inflammation of the lungs caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles; leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the alveoli that reduces their ability to stretch within incoming air; includes asbestosis and silicosis caused by fine silicon-dust inhalation
pneumoncystis carinii pneumonia or PCP
pneumonia caused by fungus P. carinii; a common opportunistic disease in patients with AIDS
pneumonia
inflammation of soft lung tissue (excluding the bronchi) in which the alveoli become filled with fluids; caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infection
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lungs, independent of a particular cause
pneumothorax
presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity due to a perforation, causing the lung to collapse
pulmonary edema
accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and bronchioles
pulmonary embolism or PE
blockage in the pulmonary circulation caused by a moving blood clot
pulmonary neoplasm
tumor of the lung
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
infection of the lungs by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which includes tubercle formation, inflammation and necrotic lesions
pyothorax or empyema
a condition of pus in the pleural cavity
respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS
respiratory failure characterized by atelectasis; this condition occurs in two forms:
= neonatal respiratory distress syndrome- caused by insufficient surfactant (it enables alveoli to be reopened after respiration)
=adult or acute respiratory distress syndrome- that affects adults and ise caused by severe lung infections or injury
rhinitis
inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
rhinomycosis
fungal infection of the nasal mucous
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
a severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes lung inflammation, alveolar damage, and atelectasis
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinus mucous membranes
tonsillitis
inflammation of a tonsil, usually a palatine tonsil; an adenoid is a pharyngeal tonsil that is subject to inflammation
tracheitis
inflammation of the trachea
tracheostenosis
narrowing of the trachea
upper respiratory infection
infection of the upper respiratory tract (nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea) usually the result of a virus