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Chemistry 1601 Exam 3
Terms in this set (73)
M = Xmol/XL
M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)
V(2) = volume of diluted solution needed
M(2) = desired molarity of diluted solution
What is a net ionic equation
An equation that shows only the ions that partake in the reaction
List the strong Acids
HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4
Strong acids have ____ ionization in water
List the weak acids
HF, HCN, CH3COOH, H2O
Weak acids have _______ in water
< 100%. They do not completely ionize in water - they form and equilibrium rxn
List strong bases
NaOH, LiOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2
Strong bases _________ ionization in water
List weak bases
Weak bases have __________ ionization in water
<100% - they do not fully ionize in water - equilibrium rxn
List the gas evolution molecules
H2S, H2CO3, H2SO3, NH4OH
List the intermediate decomposing gas evolution molecules
H2CO3, H2SO3, NH4OH
Gas evolution molecules decompose into
Water and subsequent compounds
(i.e. H2CO3 --> H2O + CO2)
lose of electrons: oxidation number increases in value
Gain of electrons: oxidation number decreases (is reduced) in value
Atoms in the elemental state always have oxidation numbers equal to
Flourine always has an oxidation number of except when.....
-1; it is in the elemental form (f2)
Group 1A (except for ____) have oxidation numbers equal to _____
Group 2A and Group 3A have oxidation numbers equal to ___
Other halogens always have oxidation numbers equal to ____ except when bonded with_____ or _____
-1; Oxygen or Flourine
What is the oxidation number of each element in ClF3
OX for Cl: +3
OX for F: -1
If an ion gains electrons it is
If an ion loses electrons
If an ion's OX# increases it is
If an ion's OX# decreases it is
If an ion's OX# decreases it is considered the ______ agent
If an ion's OX# increases it is considered the ______ agent
What is the oxidation number for each element in the compound C3H8?
For this compound it is important to look at the structure. Because Hydrogens only attach to carbons and never with each other each H will have a +1 charge. Carbons bond with H and each other. B/c two carbons have the same EN value they neither give or take an e-, so two of the carbons will have a -3 OX# and the one in the middle will have a -2#
Heat transfers from places of _____heat to places of _____ heat
1 cal = _______ J
1 Cal = ________ cal
change in E =
q + w
F x d or -P(change in V)
If gas in a system expands, W increases or decreases?
decreases (-P* (+ value) = - value
If gas in a system shrinks, W increases or decreases?
Increases, work is being done on the gas by the surroundings
If the height of a piston decrease after a reaction occurs is the work for the system positive or negative. Does the system gain or lose E
positive; gains - piston does W on gas
If the height of a piston increases after a rxn occurs is the work for the system pos or neg? Does the system gain or lose E?
Negative; loses - gas expands and does work on the piston
-P(gas) * Change in V
If a system gives off energy it is said to be ______
If a system takes in energy it is said to be ________
q = mcAT
q = nC(n)AT
***where n = #moles and C(n) signifies molar heat capacity
What is the value of Work in a bomb/constant volume calorimeter?
Zero; no volume = no work
What is Hess's Law
Canceling out uneeded species within a reaction to solve for the change in enthalpy of a specific rxn.
Change of H(rxn) =
[Channge in H of products] - [Change in H of reactants]
What are the requirments for a system to be at standard state?
25 degrees C and 1atm
The standard heat of formation for pure elements is always?
Is the standard heat of formation of Iodine2(gas) zero?
No because although iodine is in elemental form, it is not in its standard state-solid. Therefore, energy is required to put it into gaseous form.
If the standard heat of formation for I2(gas) is 64.42 kJ/mol what is the standard heat of Formation of 2I2(gas)?
What is lattic energy phase?
the forming of an ionic crystal from gaseous ions
What is the sublimation phase?
Turning a solid into a gas
What is bond phase?
removing additional atoms from a molecule so that just one of its kind remains. Make sure to multiply this enthalpy value by the coefficient of the original molecule.
What is the ionization energy phase of the Born-Haber Cycle?
Ioninizing the element that will be a cation.
What is the electron affinity phase of the born-haber cycle?
giving an electron to the element that will be a anion
How does lattice energy change as ionic radius decreases (goes down the column on PT)?
Lattice energu becomes more negative.
How does lattice energy change as the magnitude of the charges increase?
It becomes more negative
Pressure (P) =
1 mmHg = ____torr
1 atm = ____ torr
1 atm = _____ mmHg
1 atm = ? kPa
What is Boyle's Law equation?
What is Charle's Law equation?
What is Avogadro's Law?
V1/n1 = V2/n2
What is the Ideal Gas Law Equation?
What is R =
*** Units are important
What is standard temperature and Pressure?
273 K; 1 atm
What is the ideal gas law equation with molar mass (M) and moles (n)?
n/M = PV/RT
What is the ideal gas law equation with density (d)?
d = PM/RT
What is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure Equation?
Pa/Ptot = na/ntot
What is the equation for P(total) when collecting gas above water?
P(tot.) = P(gas) + P(water)
What is the vapor pressure of water and how do you find it?
The pressure of contained vaporized water at 1atm; it is depedent on only temperature.
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