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Private Pilots License
Terms in this set (36)
Morning- Land air heats up as cool sea air circulates towards land.
Dusk-Cool air circulates towards sea as warm air over sea rises.
Cessna 172 Engine
Lycoming IO (Fuel Injected, Horizontally Imposed) 360 (Cubic inches displaced by 4 cylinders)
Airmen's Meteorological Information, and it's a weather advisory that contains information about weather events that are potentially unsafe. Compared to SIGMETs, AIRMETs cover less severe weather (6hrs):
S: IFR, Mountain Obscuration
T: Turbulence, sustained surface winds 30+ KTAS
Z: Icing/Freezing Levels
Significant Meteorological Information (4 hrs):
More severe than AIRMETS, icing, turbulence, ash, or dust.
Severe conditions due to convective activity
Possible Convective SIGMETS:
1) Severe Thunderstorm due to:
-surface winds greater than or equal to 50 knots.
-hail greater than 3/4 an inch.
2) Squaw Lines
3) Thunderstorms producing heavy precipitation that affects 40% or more of an area at least 3,000 square miles.
Elements of Thunderstorm
1) Lifting Action (Convection)
2) Unstable Air (Abnormal Lapse Rate)
Forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms, heavy rain, or snow)
Brings drizzly rain and then are followed by warm and clear weather.
Front that can produce thunderstorms.
A front that occurs when a cold and warm front are stuck fighting. Produces clouds, maybe rain.
Standard Fuel:Air ratio (Mixture)
1 fuel: 14 air
Definitions of Night
Logging: End of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight.
Lights: Sunset to Sunrise.
Currency: 1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise.
Entry to GRM
1. RPM 2100 (90 KIAS)
2. Aircraft under Va
3. Flaps up.
4. Descend 1000 AGL
5. Find heading directly downwind.
6. Clearing turns
7. Choose suitable power off landing field
8. Choose point to begin manuever
Pressure Systems-Direction of Spin, Relation to Temperature
High Pressure-Clockwise, cool, heavy air, can be hazy from particles.
Low Pressure-Counterclockwise, warm, rising air, near troughs usually. Associated with clouds and storms.
Standard Lapse Rate
-2 Deg C per 1000'
A temperature increase as altitude increases. Caused by terrestrial radiation on clear, cool night. Land cools while heating air above.
The amount of water vapor in the air. Determined by temperature. Can be saturated or unsaturated.
Temperature which air must be cooled to in order to become saturated (100% humidity).
*Small difference in temp. and dew point->condensation nearing.
-if temp. is above freezing you will get fog or low clouds.
Trough-Low pressure-where fronts occur
Cause temperature change, decrease in pressure follow by increase, shift in wind direction.
Stable vs Unstable Air
Stable: No vertical motion, stable lapse rate or temp. inversion; stratiform clouds, fog, continuous precipitation, smooth air, fair to poor visibility.
Unstable: Cumuliform clouds, showery precip, turbulence, good visibility.
Cloud Types: (Rank altitudes, then basic types.)
Cirrus- tallest, icy, can't cause icing since that require precip.
3 Stages of Thunderstorms
Cumulus-updrafts, low pressure
Mature-Rain starts, up and down drafts. (Virga=precip that evaporates before hitting ground)
-Can include-lightning, hail, wind shear, turbulence
-Embedded TS-obscured by cloud layer
Cloud Base Formula
(Surface air temp-dew point)
A change in wind direction and/or wind speed within a very short distance.
Low level wind shear occurs near fronts, thunderstorms or with temperature inversion and surface wind of 25 knots.
Warm front- in front of front (6hrs)
Cold front- behind (3hrs)
Effect of Wind Shear on Aircraft
Tail wind to head wind- pitch up, airspeed increase, altitude increase.
Headwind to tailwind- pitch down, altitude decreases, airspeed slows.
-Require visible moisture (cloud or rain), can be near fronts.
-CLEAR: hard glossy, large on wings, large water droplets
-RIME: brittle, frost like, small water droplets
-drag increases, weight increases, stall speed increases
Moist air cooled to dew point.
Types of Clouds that make Ceiling
Broken, overcast NOT scattered
ACS Straight and Level
+/- 200 feet alt, +/- 20 deg heading, +/- 10 knots airspeed
Parts of Spin
ACS Slow Flight
+/- 100 feet alt, +/- 10 deg heading, +/- 10 knots airspeed, back +/-10 deg
+/- 100 feet, +/- 10 knots, 600-1000 AGL
Rectangular-enter 45 deg on downwind
S-Turns-wings level, 1/2 mile, call out wind corrections
Turns Around Pt.- enter on downwind, 1/2 mile
ACS Steep Turn
45 deg bank +/- 5 deg
+/- rollout on entry heading +/- 10 deg
Maintain altitude +/- 100 feet
Effect of Weight Changes of Maneuvering Speed
Va decreases as weight decrease since plane can fly at lower AOA. Thus, it is further from critical AOA and will break before stalling.
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