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SS2 Cold War Vocab

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United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Satellite Nations
Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR's control
Iron Curtain
an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
Cold War
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. (831)
Containment
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshal Plan
George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe
Berlin Airlift
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Warsaw Pact
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (p. 836)
Collective Security
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
Loyalty Program
1947 Truman ordered security checks of govt employees to root out communists
Fall of China
After WWII, the USSR spreads into Asia and supports Mao Zedong, who takes over China after overthrowing Jiang Jieshi (he flees to Taiwan). China then becomes a communist nation. It was seen as a defeat to the US and its allies (US refuses to recognize Beijing).
HUAC
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda
Blacklisting
list of people suspected to be communists, people on the list were prevented from finding work
McCarthyism
In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy began a sensational campaign against communists in government that led to more than four years of charges and countercharges, ending when the Senate censured him in 1954. McCarthyism became the contemporary name for the red scare of the 1950's.
38th Parallel
Line that divided Korea - Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south, during the Cold War.
Korean War
the cold war conflict in which UN soliders fought to defend South Korea from takeover by Communist North Korea, ending a stalemate in 1953
Military-industrial complex
Eisenhower's term for the close ties between the defense industry and the Pentagon that might influence government policy.
Brinkmanship
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
U-2 Incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Berlin Wall
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Peace Corps
volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty
Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world

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