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marine bio: water chemistry
Terms in this set (33)
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
An attraction between molecules of different substances
Amount of energy needed to raise temperature 1 gram of water 1 degree C
latent heat of fusion
The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid
latent heat of vaporization
The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gas
latent heat of evaporation
The amount of energy required to overcome the surface tension of a liquid before the molecules move into the vapor state.
A property of water that acts to moderate changes in temperature.
The ability of a material to maintain its temperature
The cycle through which water in the hydrosphere moves; includes such processes as evaporation, precipitation, and surface and groundwater runoff
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
properties of a solution that depend only on the number of particles dissolved in it, not the properties of the particles themselves. The main ones are boiling point elevation and freezing point depression.
principle of constant proportions
The proportions of major conservative elements in seawater remain nearly constant, though total salinity may change with location; also called Forchhammer's principle.
The constant proportion of solids or salts in seawater
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time.
the amount of time allotted to bring the components of a material together into a homogenous mix
The average time a given particle will stay in a given system
seawater constituents that occur in constant proportion or change very slowly through time, long residence times
seawater constituents that are tied to biological or seasonal cycles or short geological cycles. They have short residence times
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
a basic substance; chemically, a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxyl ions; in reference to natural water, a measure of the base content of the water.
scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7 to 14 is basic
A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
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