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Brain & Behavior Unit #3
Terms in this set (169)
Anterior is the same thing as what? (describing where something is)
Posterior is the same thing as what?(describing where something is)
What do Anterior and Rostral refer to?(describing where something is)
What do Posterior and Caudal refer to?(describing where something is)
What does Dorsal refer to?(describing where something is)
What does ventral refer to?(describing where something is)
What does Medial refer to?(describing where something is)
Towards the middle
What does Lateral refer to?(describing where something is)
Towards the side, away from middle
What does ipsilateral refer to? (describing where something is)
What does Contralateral refer to? (describing where something is)
What is the same thing as coronal? (Brain Plane and slice)
What does sagittal refer to?(Brain Plane and slice)
cutting leaving a LEFT and RIGHT side (side to side)
What is the same thing as Horizontal? (Brain Plane and slice)
What do axial/horizontal refer to?(Brain Plane and slice)
Cutting so there is a TOP and BOTTOM (up/down "parallel to the ground"
What are the meninges? name them
the 3 layers of tissue that encase the central nervous system
DURA MATER, ARACHNOID MEMBRANE, PIA MATTER
what is the neuraxis? why is this important in Neuroanatomy?
an imaginary line drawn through the central nervous system, from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain
Directions in Neuroanatomy are typically described relative to this point
describe the position of the meninges and the structures in between them.
Dura mater , then arachnoid membrane, subarachnoid space filled with cerebrospinal fluid then pia mater.
Describe dura mater ("hard mother")
outermost layer of the meninges
thick, tough, flexible and unstretchable
Describe the arachnoid membrane
the middle layer of the meninges, between the outer dura mater
Describe the pia mater
The layer of meninges that clings to the surface of the brain thin and delicate
The smaller surface blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord are within this layer
What does Coronal/transverse refer to?(Brain Plane and slice)
Front and back
what does intracraneal space refer to?
What are ventricles
hollow spaces within the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid
How does the cerebra spinal fluid and the meninges help the brain?
The provide CUSHION, ABSORB PRESSURE
The brain is very sensitive and without the liquid, it would be wobbling everywhere with each movement. So, the CSF slows down the movement of the brain. Its net weight is reduced from 1600 g to 80 g
How many ventricles are there? what is the name of the structure in-between the ventricles?
Lateral Ventricles (1st & 2nd LARGEST) , 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle
When breaking lower back, what happens? When breaking upper back, what happens?
y does this happen?
Paraplegic (can't move 2 limbs)
Quadriplegic (Can't move 4 limbs)
Brain can't communicate with body through spinal chord
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
a narrow tube interconnecting the 3rd and 4th ventricles of the brain located at the center of
What produces the CSF. Where it this structure found?
Choroid plexus found in ventricles
looks like squiggly tissue
Describe the movement of CSF
Lateral ventricles drain produce CSF in its choroid plexus, lateral ventricles drain into 3rd ventricle, this ventricle produces more CSF then 3rd ventricle drains to cerebral aqueduct, cerebral aqueduct drains into 4th ventricle, 4th ventricle produces more CSF. CSF leaves 4th ventricle through small openings that connect with subarachnoid space surrounding the brain. The CSF flow through subarachnoid space around central nervous system, where it is reabsorbed into blood supply through arachnoid granulations. These pouch shaped structures protrude into superior sagittal sinus, a blood vessel that drains into the veins serving the brain.
goes down spinal cord, up spinal cord, then to cortex of brain.
What happens is the CSF circulation is blocked? where is this blockage?
pinching of In cerebral aqueduct
cerebral aqueduct is closed forming pressure build up in 1st 3 ventricles
How is the cortex developed?
from the inside out. The 1st cells to be produced by ventricular zone (inside neural tube) give rise to 1st cells to be produced by ventricular zone migrate a short distance and establish the 1st and deepest layer, next wave of new born cells pass through 1st layer and form the 2nd, ext... until 6 layers are formed
Where are neurons created?
ventricular space (prenatal), then they migrate to where they will live. Initially a glial cell goes from ventricular zone, to outermost layer and creates a scaffolding. Neurons produced climb up glial cell and create 6 layers of the cortex.
1st group of glial cells form 1st layer of cortex.
How is the Cortex formed?
Neurons are created in ventricular space (prenatal), then they migrate to where they will live. Initially a glial cell goes from ventricular zone, to outermost layer of brain and creates a scaffolding. Neurons produced climb up glial cell and create 6 layers of the cortex.
1st group of glial cells form 1st layer of cortex.
How can the cortex be malformed?
sometimes neurons going up scaffold get stuck. Sometimes u get neurons going into wrong layers.
Where does the spinal cord end?
by the bellybutton.
what's the name of the structure that follows the spinal cord?
cauda-equina "horse's tail"
They are nerve roots
What is the gray matter in brain scans?
neurons and dendrites and its branches at the outer layer of brain
CORTEX (where 6 layers are)
What is the white matter in brain scans?
axons of gray matter neurons
it is white because axons are myelinated
What is the cortex?
the outermost layer of the brain housing most neurons
What do all neuronal disorders have in common?
they all have associated white matter deficits
What are the sulci (sulcus) in brain?
A groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, smaller than a fissure
crevices (spaces) in brain
What are the giri (girus)?
A convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures
The piece of brain between sulcus
What is the purpose of gyri and sulci?
to increase surface area. 2/3 of the surface of the cortex is hidden within these grooves
The brain needs more gray matter.
What is a big sulcus called?
Break down the make up of the Nervous System
Nervous system is divided into 2
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
FOREBRAIN: includes TELENCEPHALON, DIENCEPHALON
Brain in CNS divides into LEFT and RIGHT hemisphere.
Each Hem divided into 4 lobes:
FRONTAL, PARIETAL, OCCIPITAL, TEMPORAL lobe (thumb of boxing mit)
DIENCEPHALON: Thalamus, Hypothalamus) ,
MIDBRAIN/MESENCEPHALON (cerebral aqueduct),
HINDBRAIN (MENTENCEPHALON (pons & cerebellum) MYELENCEPHALON (medula oblongata)
Involved in action
includes primary motor cortex
begins ventrally at lateral fissure
divides frontal lobe dorsally and temp lobe ventrally
Function of primary motor cortex. Where is it?
in frontal lobe
contains neurons that control movement in skeletal muscles
has neurons that if i were to stimulate certain parts, it would move any part of cortex
depending on how much we use certain parts of body (how precisely u move them) they are a greater part of motor cortex
NOT WHERE MOVEMENT BEGINS
Where does movement begin?
Where is the premotor cortex? where is it?
plans and prepares movement
sends plan to primary motor cortex
Before motor cortex
Where is the central sulcus?
divides blue and purple part (look at powerpoint) in middle
Where is the lateral fissure?
above temporal lobe,
between temporal lobe and Frontal
prefrontal cortex function
planning reasoning, analysis.
figure out whether or not we will move,
keep ideas in mind
short term memory
Describe how the functions of the prefrontal cortex, the primary motor cortex and the premotor cortex interact
prefrontal lobe does reasoning and analysis bringing the Intention to move, premotor (in front of primary motor) plans and prepares movement, primary motor cortex sends motor command,
What is the function of the Orbital frontal
inhibition "keeps u from doing bad things"
failure of inhibition leads to poor decisions
only on left Hemisphere of frontal lobe
involved in production of language
What is the frontal lobe divided into?
superior frontal girus, middle frontal girus, inferior frontal girus.
3 giri divided by 2 sulsi (superior frontal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus)
what is the arachnoid granulation?
Small projections of the arachnoid membrane through the dura mater into superior sagittal sinus; CSF flows through them to be reabsorbed into the blood supply
What is the superior sagittal sinus?
A venous sinus located in the midline just dorsal to the corpus callosum, between the 2 cerebral hemispheres
What is the cure for obstructive hydrocephalus?
drilling hole through skull to insert a shunt tube into 1 of the ventricles,. The tube is then placed beneath the skin and connected to a pressure relief valve that is implanted in the abdominal cavity. When the pressure in ventricles becomes excessive, the valve permits CSF to escape into abdomen where it is reabsorbed into blood
Which menages does the peripheral nervous system not have?
When does development of the nervous system begin?
Around the 18th day in the womb
What is the neural tube?
hollow tube, closed at the rostral end, that forms from ectodermal tissue early in embryonic development; serves as the origin of the Central Nervous system
How does the neural tube form?
Part of the outer layer of the back of the embryo thickens and forms a plate. The edges of this plate form ridges, that curl tower each other along the longitudinal line. By the 21st day, these ridges touch each other and fuse together forming the neural tube.
By the 28th day, neural tube is made. Its rostral end develops 3 interconnected chambers which later become ventricles and the tissue that surrounds them become 3 major parts of brain (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain)
region around lateral ventricles becomes telecephalon and diecephalon. mescephalon becomes cerebral aqueduct and
What is the cerebral cortex?
the outermost layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres. It surrounds the cerebral hemispheres like bark of a tree
made up pf glia, cell bodies, dendrites and interconnecting axons of neurons but cell bodies predominate giving it its gray color
What is the ventricular zone and why is it important?
A layer to cells that line the inside of the neural tube; contain progenitor cells that divide and give rise to cells of central nervous system.
What are progenitor cells?
cells of the ventricular zone that divide and give rise to cells of the CNS.
In what way can the development of the cerebral cortex be described?
it develops from inside out. The 1st cells produced by the ventricular zone migrate a short distance and make the 1st/deepest layer. Then the next wave of new cells pass through the 1st layer and form the second and so on.
What is symmetrical division?
Division of progenitor cell that gives rise to 2 progenitor cells; increases the size of the ventricular zone and hence the brain that develops from it.
What is asymmetrical division? when does this begin to happen as the brain develops?
Division of progenitor cell that gives rise to 2 cells: a progenitor cell and a neuron. Neuron migrates away from ventricular zone toward its final resting place in brain.
Happens after 7 weeks of conception
What are radial glia?
the 1st set of cells produced through asymmetrical division.
They remain in ventricular zone but extend fibers radially outward from ventricular zone. They attach to pia mater
What are Cajal-Retzius cells? What happens after C-R cells are formed?
set of brain cells formed after radial glia.
specialized neurons that establish themselves after cortical development in a layer near the terminals of the radial glia, just inside pia mater; secrete chemical that controls the establishment of migrating neuron in the layers of cortex.
After C-R is formed, second layer of neurons is formed. These neurons establish the 1st, innermost of the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex.
Each successive wave of newborn neurons travels past neurons that were born previously and establishes next cortical layer. Newborn neurons are guided in travel by their fibers of radial glial cells. Neurons crawl along radial fibers pushing their way through neurons that were born earlier and finally coming to rest against the layer of C-R cells. Chemicals secreted by these cells cause neurons to detach from radial glia fibers and establish themselves in outmost layer of cortex.
What is apoptosis?
The death of a cell caused by a chemical signal that activates a genetic mechanism inside the cell.
At the end of cortical development radial glia undergo apoptosis or transform into astrocytes or neurons
What happens when neurons reach their final locations?
they begin forming connections with other neurons. They grow dendrites which receive the terminal buttons from the axons of other neurons and grow axons of their own.
Once growing ends of these axons reach their targets they form branches. Each of these branches finds a vacant place on the membrane of the appropriate type of postsynaptic cell, grows a terminal button and establishes synaptic connection
How does a neuron know to which terminal button to connect?
different types of cells secrete different chemicals which attract different types of axons
What happens to 50% of neurons in the ventricular zone?
they die by apotosis bc they don't find vacant postsynaptic cells of the right type to form synaptic connections
How does the specialization of neurons happen?
genetically and by the axons that provide input to that region
What is the ultimate size of the brain due to?
the size of the ventricular cortex
B-catenin (a protein involved in regulation of cell division and tissue growth)
Where is the forebrain
The most rostral of the 3 major divisions of the brain; includes the telecephalon and diencephalon
What are the 3 major divisions of the brain?
Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain
What are the cerebral hemispheres?
2 major portions of the forebrain, covered by the cerebral cortex
What is the subcortical region?
the region located within the brain, beneath the cortical surface
what does the telencephalon in the forebrain include?
most of both cerebral hemispheres,
which 3 areas of the cerebrocortex receive information from the sensory organs? Where are they?
primary visual cortex (occipital lobe), primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe), and somatosensoty cortex (parietal lobe)
Describe the function of the primary visual cortex. where is it?
region of the posterior occipital lobe whose primary input is from the visual system
Describe the function of the primary auditory cortex. where is it?
the region of the superior temporal lobe whose primary input is from the auditory system
Where is the calcarine fissure
in the occipital lobe on the medial surface of the brain; most of the primary visual cortex is located along its upper and lower banks
Where is the lateral fissure?
separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes
what is the function of the primary somatosensory cortex? where is it?
region of the anterior parietal lobe whose primary input is from the somatosensory system.
Describe the function of the insular cortex. where is it?
sunken region of the cerebral cortex that is normally covered by the rostral superior temporal lobe and caudal inferior to the frontal lobe
What is the sensory association cortex? what takes place there?
the regions of the cerebral cortex that receive information from the regions of primary sensory cortex
perception takes place there and memories are stored there
Each primary sensory area of the cerebral cortex sends information to these regions
Regions of the sensory association cortex located closest to the primary sensory areas receive info from only 1 sensory system.
Ex: region closest to primary visual cortex analyses visual info only
Regions of sensory Association Cortex located far from primary sensory system are involved in several kinds of perceptions and memories. Make it possible to integrant intro from more than 1 sensory system
Ex: we can leaner connection between the sight of particular face and the sound of particular voice
What is the left hemisphere specialized in? what can it do a greater amount of that the right can't? What is the right hemisphere specialized in?
left: analysis, serial events
Ex: talking understanding, speaking, reading, writing
right: synthesis (putting things together)
Ex: reading maps, contracting complex objets out of small elements
Since each hemisphere has somewhat different jobs, how are they able to perceive the same thing?
through the connecting that the corpus callosum brings
What is the corpus Callosum?
large bundle of axons that interconnects corresponding regions of the association cortex on each side of brain
Describe the Neocortex
phylogenetically newest cortex, including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and association cortex
Describe the Limbic Cortex
phylogenetically oldest cortex, located at the medial edge of the cerebral hemisphere. above the corpus callosum
Describe the Limbic System
Group of brain regions including the anterior thalamic nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus, limbic cortex and parts of the hypothalamus, as well as their interconnecting fiber bundles
Describe the hippocampus
Episodic memory. Learning u can describe
Example: when asked to remember how you learned to play basketball the when would be hippocampus but how would be by basal ganglia
forebrain structure of temporal lobe, constituting important part of limbic system, includes the hippocampus proper, debate gyrus, and subiculum
controls the autonomic system and endocrine system and organizes behaviors related to survival of the species 5 F's (feeding,fleeing, fighting, mating)
Describe the amygdala
Structure in the interior of the rostral temporal lobe, containing a set of nuclei; part of the limbic system
Describe Mammillary bodies
Protrusion of bottom of brain at posterior end of hypothalamus containing some hypothalamic nuclei; part of limbic system
What are the major parts of the limbic system? 4
hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, mammillary bodies,
Describe the function of the basal ganglia
A group of subcortical nuclei in telencephalon (the caudate nucleus, the globes pallidus and the putamen) They are important parts of the motor system
What is a disease that affects the basal ganglia?
Parkinsons which affects caudate nucleus and putamen. Brings weakness, tremors, rigidity of limbs, poor balance and difficulty in initiating movements
Describe the diencephalon
Region of forebrain surrounding 3rd ventricle
its most important structures are thalamus and hypothalamus
Describe the thalamus
largest portion of the diecenphalon located above the hypothalamus contains nuclei that project info to specific regions of the cerebral cortex and receive info from it
What are projection fibers?
An axon of a neuron in 1 region of brain whose terminals form synapses with neurons in another region
How does the Thalamus work? provide examples
it is divided into several nuclei
some of its nuclei receive sensory info from sensory systems. The neurons in these nuclei then relay the sensory to specific sensory projection areas in the cerebral cortex
EX: the LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS receives info from the eye and send axons to primary visual cortex
MEDIAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS: in thalamus receives fibers from auditory system and projects fibers to primary auditory system.
other thalamic nuclei project to specific regions of the cerebral cortex but don not relay sensory info
EX: VENTROLATERAL NUCLEUS receives info from cerebellum and projects it to primary motor cortex
Describe the functions of the Hypothalamus. the 4 fs? where is it?
in diencephalon under thalamus
both sides of ventral portion of 3rd ventricle
involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system, control of anterior and posterior pituitary glands and integration of species-typical behaviors
Fighting, feeding, fleeing an mating
How are hormones released from the hypothalamus?
special system of blood vessels connects hypothalamus with anterior pituitary gland
The hypothalamic hormones are secreted by specialized neurons called neurosecretory cells.
The hormones stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones.
Posterior Pituitary Gland: produced in neurons in hypothalamus whose axons travel to pituitary stalk and terminate in posterior pituitary gland. The hormones are carried in vesicles through axoplasm of these neurons and collect in the terminal buttons in posterior pituitary gland. When these axons fire, the hormone contained within terminal buttons is liberated and enters Circulatory system.
What is the difference between the anterior and posterior sides of the pituitary gland?
anterior is the anterior part of the pituitary gland whose secretions are controlled by the hypothalamic hormones.
the posterior side contains hormone secreting terminal buttons of axons whose cell bodies lie within the hypothalamus.
Describe the position of the midbrain (mesencephalon)
the central of the 3 major divisions of the brain
surrounds the cerebral aqueduct and consists of the tectum and tegmentum
Structure in interior of rostral temporal lobe, containing set of nuclei; part of limb system
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
All involved in vision
has the primary visual cortex
How is vision processed in the brain?
reaches thalamus then taken to primary visual cortex in Occipital Lobe
Some info goes to dorsal stream in parietal lobe (WHERE things are)
Some info goes to Ventral Stream in temporal lobe (WHAT you are looking at)
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
Perception of the world. Internal representation of the world in brain
High Level vision, spacial awareness (if u close ur eyes u'll visualize your surroundings)
loading info from memory
Albert Einstein had significant differences in Parietal Lobe
what it the tegmentum?
ventral part of the midbrain that includes gray matter, reticular formation, red nucleus ands substantial niagra
what is the reticular formation?
large network of neural tissue located in the central region of the brain stem from the medulla to the diencephalon.
receives sensory information from cerebral cortex, thalamus, spinal cord.
Plays role in sleep arousal, attention, muscle tons, movement and vital refelzes
what is the function of the periaqueductal gray matter?
contains neural circuits involved in species-typical behavriors
what is the function of the red nucleus?
large nucleus that receives info from cerebellum and motor cortex and sends axons to motor neurons in spinal cord.
what is the hindbrain made of?
metencephalon(pons and cerebellum) and myelencephalon
function of cerebuellum
receives visual, auditory, vestibular, and somatosensory info, info about individual muscle movements being directed in brain and integrates info and modifies the motor outflow exerting coordination of movement
what happens is cerebellum is damaged?
poor coordination of movements
function of pons
contains portion of reticular formation including some nuclei that appear to be important in sleep and arousal
what does the myencephalone include? what is its function
includes parts of reticular formation including nuclei that control regulation of cardiovascular system, respiration and skeletal muscle tons
what is the principal function of the spinal cord?
distribute motor fibers to effector organs of the body and to collect somatosensory information to give to the brain
what is the spinal cord protected by?
vertebral column (24 individual vertebrae)
Cervical (neck) thoracic (chest) lumbar (lowe back)
anesthesia and paralysis of the lower part of the body produced by injection of local anesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding cauda equina
how is the white and gray matter in the spinal ford different to the one in the brain?
in spinal cord, the gray is inside and the white is outside
how is the brain's size relative to the size of humans able to be bigger than other animals?
lengthening 1st and second period of brain development
what does the forebrain include? what does the forebrain's parts include?
forebrain include the DYENCEPHALON AND TELENCEPHALON
telencephalon includes CEREBRAL CORTEX (4 lobes), LIMBIC SYSTEM and basal ganglia
DIENCEPHALON: thalamus, hypothalamus
what does the limbic system include?
limbic cortex, hippocampus, amygdala
what does the limbic system in charge of?
emotion, motivation, and learning
what is the function of the basal ganglia? where is it?
in limbic system which is in the telencephalon which is in fore brain
in charge of control of movement
function of thalamus
directs info to and from cerebral cortex
function of hypothalamus
controls endocrine system and modulates species typical behaviors
what does the midbrain surround? what does it consist of?
surrounded by cerebral aqueduct, and consists of tectum and tegmentum
what is the function of the tectum?
involved in audition and the control of visual reflexes and reactions involving moving stimuli
what is the function of the tegmentum?
contains reticular formation which is important in sleep, arousal and movement
in the reticule formation what does the periaqueductal gray matter do?
controls specific-typical behaviors
in the reticule formation what does the red nucleus and substantia niagra do?
both parts of motor system
what does the hindbrain surround? what does it include?
surrounds 4th ventricle,
contains cerebellum, pons and medulla.
what does the cerebellum play a role in?
what does the pons do?
contains nuclei that are important in sleep and arousal
what does the medulla oblongata do?
involved in sleep and arousal but also in control of movement and control of vital functions such as heart rate, breathing and pressure
am exon directed towards the central nervous system carrying sensory info
axon directed away from central nervous system conveying motor commands to muscles and glands
what are the cranial nerves and how many pairs are there?
there are 12 pairs attached to ventral surface of brain
peripheral nerve attached directly to the brain
most of thm serve sensory and motor functions of the head and neck region
function of vagus nerve
larges of cranial nerves
regulates function of organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities
conveying efferent fibers of parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system to organs of thoracic/abdominal cavity
how is somatosensory and sense of taste info received?
through cranial nerves from unipolar neurons
protrusion at the end of the olfactory nerve receives input from olfactory receptors
somatic nervous system
part of peripheral nervous system that controls movement of skeletal muscles or transmits somatosensory info to nervous system
autonomic nervous system
regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muslce and glands
what is the autonomic nervous system composed of?
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
contrast somatic and autonomic nervous system
somatic is voluntary movement
autonomic is involuntary like breathing
what are some things the body does when stimulating the sympathetic nervous system?
increase blood flow to muscles, stimulates secretion of epinephrine,
where are the cell bodies of sympathetic ns neurons located?
in gray matter of thoracic/lumbar regions of spinal cord
what is the olfactory in charge of?
what is the optic nerve in charge of?
what are the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves in charge of?
what is the trigeminal nerve in charge of?
what is the facial nerve in charge of?
what is the auditory nerve in charge of?
hearing and balance
what is the glossopharyngeal nerve in charge of?
what is the vagus nerve in charge of?
what is the spinal accessory nerve in charge of?
what is the hypoglossal nerve in charge of?
efferent neuron of autonomic nervous system whose cell body is located in cranial nerve nucleus or in the intermediate horn of the spinal gray matter and whose terminal buttons synapse upon postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia
neurons of the autonomic nervous system that form synapses directly with target organ
inner portion of the adrenal galndlocated atop kidney, controlled by sympathetic nerve fibers; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
portion of autonomic nervous system that controls functions that occur during relaxed state.
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