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The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal

Theory X

The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals

Theory Y

The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self control if they committed to the objectives

Intrinsic Motivators

A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction

Extrinsic Motivators

Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards

McClelland's theory of needs

Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation

Need for Achievement

The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed

Need for Power

The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise

Need for Affiliation

The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Expectancy Theory

The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome and whether that outcomes is attractive to them


The belief that effort is related to performance


The belief that performance is related to rewards


The value or importance an individual places on a reward


What an individual is trying to accomplish

Management by Objectives (MBO)

An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress


An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task

Equity Theory

Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate and inequities

Distributive Justice

The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among the individuals

Procedural Justice

The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards

Interactional Justice

The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Offering extrinsic rewards for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation

Operant Conditioning

A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment

Continuos Reinforcement

A desired behavior is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated

Intermittent Reinforcement

A desire behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeated, but not every tim it is demonstrated

Fixed-interval schedule

The reward is given at fixed time intervals

Variable-interval schedule

The reward is given at variable time intervals

Fixed-ratio schedule

The reward is given at fixed amounts of output

Variable-ratio schedule

The reward is given at variable amounts of output

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