28 terms

Organizational Behavior

The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal
Theory X
The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
Theory Y
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self control if they committed to the objectives
Intrinsic Motivators
A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic Motivators
Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards
McClelland's theory of needs
Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
Need for Power
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for Affiliation
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Expectancy Theory
The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome and whether that outcomes is attractive to them
The belief that effort is related to performance
The belief that performance is related to rewards
The value or importance an individual places on a reward
What an individual is trying to accomplish
Management by Objectives (MBO)
An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate and inequities
Distributive Justice
The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among the individuals
Procedural Justice
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Interactional Justice
The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Offering extrinsic rewards for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment
Continuos Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated
Intermittent Reinforcement
A desire behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeated, but not every tim it is demonstrated
Fixed-interval schedule
The reward is given at fixed time intervals
Variable-interval schedule
The reward is given at variable time intervals
Fixed-ratio schedule
The reward is given at fixed amounts of output
Variable-ratio schedule
The reward is given at variable amounts of output