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The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self control if they committed to the objectives
A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction
Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards
McClelland's theory of needs
Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome and whether that outcomes is attractive to them
Management by Objectives (MBO)
An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate and inequities
The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among the individuals
The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Offering extrinsic rewards for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment
A desire behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeated, but not every tim it is demonstrated
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