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Developmental Psych Exam 3
Terms in this set (78)
Withdrawal from social interaction in the familiar peer group across time and situations. These are kids you know, not shyness to strangers. Can have anxiety of different things. Measured in peer-reports, "who in your class is afraid to engage with others?" Timid and shy, afraid to join others. Temperament influences this. Further induced by environment to point of depression.
Clinical view on social withdrawal
Clinical side studies anxiety disorders, etc. Research side focuses on social withdrawal. These two don't really talk much.
Children self-report more distress concerning internalizing than externalizing difficulties.
Undercontrol=externalizing difficulties (hyperactivity, defiance, aggression)
Overcontrol=internalizing difficulties (anxiety, fear, depression, withdrawal)
• How social withdrawal is related to social adjustment
When kids get older, social withdrawal has more negative adjustment implications the older the child is. It gets worth with age because peer interactions become more important.
Preschool-Anxiety, low self worth internalizing problems.
Early school-adjustment, rejection, isolation, academic difficulties.
Mid-Late childhood/Adolescense-loneliness, depression, anxiety, low self-worth.
Adulthood-depression, low SE, delays in life-transitions, etc.
More strongly associated with negative consequences for boys). Men are "supposed" to be outgoing and assertive, and women withdrawn.
Level of depression with social withdrawal depends on if kid is accepted by peers or not.
• How withdrawn behaviors may be influenced by the
social context (diathesis-stress model and empirical findings)
The experience of peer exclusion exacerbates the outcomes associated with anxious solitude. High anxious solitude with high exclusion predicts the most depressive symptoms. If kids have anxious solitude, but low exclusion, they aren't nearly as depressed.
• The idea of Anxious Solitude and Social Disinterest
and how these may be differently related to adjustment
Anxious solitude-Want to approach, but can't, don't have social skills. Only this is correlated with anxious attachment and peer victimization across the world, first three variables are almost identical.
Social disinterest-low approach and low avoidance. Doesn't want to approach, but have average social skills. NOT related to low self-esteem.
Anxious solitude+peer exclusion=continued anxious solitude over time, as well as elevated internalizing difficulties.
Anxious solitude-peer exclusion=diminished anxious solitude over time, as well as diminished internalizing difficulties.
Anxious solitude and social disinterest are separate dimensions of social withdrawal in adolescence. Are partially divergent associations with psychological and peer-reported social adjustment, AS is more maladaptive, but SD needs more research. Not sure where SD comes from. Need to determine risk factors of SD vs.AS
• basic characteristics of physical and mental development in
Sociocultural effects postpone the role of life plans, like the level of education and marriage. Society has changed toward older pregnancies, being single is more acceptable, you don't have to know everything for your life right now.
Prime time for physical, mental, and social achievements. Top athletes usually in 20's, harder to do school after 20's.
• how chronological age and observed mental or social development
have an imperfect relationship from early adulthood onwards
Important relationship between biological and cognitive age in emerging adulthood- Imperfect relationships from this stage onwards. Influence of generation cohort (social context and culture). Individual differences begin to become "salient," still, development continues through the life-span. In many areas of Psych, college years are thought to represent adulthood.
Health is typically good/excellent-several childhood illnesses are not apparent anymore, and the aging process has not brought new ones. However, senescence has already begun: the aging process beings as soon as a full size and development is reached.
aging has begun (hearing sharpest at age 12), but you don't notice. Example, big difference in pregnancy at 23 vs 40.
state of equilibrium maintained by the body's physiological systems. I recover from runs better than Mom because I recover to homeostasis. I adjust better to A/C than Dr. O.
Extra capacity that allows the fight with stress and other extreme conditions. Emotional and physical stress. Can deal with break up and finals week better than a 50 year old.
Homeostasis and organ reserve...
Homeostasis and organ reserve work very well in 20's, which is why health is good and aging process doesn't show as much. Both are influenced by lifestyle habits adopted in earlier life. Longer life expectancy makes these influences even more important.
Exercise in 20s
habits established by early adulthood go a long way in predicting health in life. Are related to social relationships, communities, and culture (Getting enough exercise is an increasing concern in all Western societies). Establishing life style habits is more important than extreme spurts.
Nutrition in 20s
Finding a balance between calorie intake and consumption is increasingly challenging
a body weight/calorie intake that the homeostatic processes strive to maintain. Children have this when young and not used to family habits. Food isn't comfort, you feel when you're full. Physical disorders hamper with body's balance (like thyroid problems), but in most cases obesity strives from calorie intake-consumption imbalance. BUT BEING SLIM DOESN'T MEAN BEAING HEALTHY. Role of nutrients determines health.
• characteristics of postformal thought
Cognitive functioning goes beyond adolescence. Characterized by increasing capability for abstract, dialectical, and abstract thought. Prefrontal cortex has finally developed=increased capability for abstract and flexible thought. Recognize objective vs. subjective thinking. Capability of being aware of what kind of thinking you're using and aware of emotions that influence that. We have POTENTIAL for this, but not many people get it. Cognitive development continues through the life span.
• challenges adults (from early adulthood onwards) face in thinking
Subjective vs. objective thought-own perspective vs. abstract, impersonal logic
Emotions and logic-experience based vs. rational based reasoning
Vocational identity may be complex to reach. (also known as educational identity because it takes longer to get a job and longer education times.)
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation- Anything done for external reasons doesn't give you same sense of well-being as intrinsic. Some can get well-being if still make a hobby out of what you love. Person-environment fit may also increase or decrease wellbeing.
Establishment of ethnic and vocational identity are especially relevant for young adults.
reflected in multiple dimensions-it is reciprocal, context-specific, and multifaceted. Developmental patterns associated with it typically differ between adolescence and adulthood: young adults are more likely to "accept" and home their original background. Especially complicated for immigrants.
Due to developed maximum cognitive potential and socialization effects, issues of morality are essential for young adults. College is "moral function"-helps gain values and philosophy of life.
Kholberg's theory of moral development
Level 1 (pre-conventional-childhood)
1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?)
2. Self-interest and orientation (What's in it for me?)
Kids are selfish. As long as get benefits and no punishment is okay with whatever parents say.
Level 2 (conventional-adolescence)
3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (social norms) (The good boy/good girl attitude)
4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)
Social conformity. Want to be "good," before rebellion. Law followers, even if parents disobey (speeding is wrong).
Level 3 (Post-conventional-late adolescence/early adulthood)
5. Social contract orientation
6. Universal ethical principles (principled conscience)
Start to realize we make laws. Start to have ethical understanding. Religion, morality, ,may or may not coincide with law.
• how most experience well-being at this stage of development,
but also how some may suffer from adjustment difficulties
Emotional development and well-being- physical and mental capabilities are at their peak. Self-esteem has begun to rise after adolescence. Happy memories from this period are normative. Have freedom to explore and experience new things. Early adulthood is sift in social and vocational contexts. HOWEVER, all the choices and shifts in context can be a double edged sword, individuals differ in how they handle this stage in their lives. Mastering the transition leads to happiness, excitement, and high SE. But the stress can have negative consequences, such as being overwhelmed, emerging substance abuse and/or psychopathology
Diathesis-stress model-stress interacts with underlying predispositions (genetic, social, or cultural)-Example, most people abuse before early adulthood, but college students most likely because of peer and school pressures, as well as self-medication. Schizophrenia is brought up by stress. Need therapy AND medication, usually diagnosed in early 20s, rarely in children.
• substance abuse and psychological disorders during early adulthood
1. Substance abuse-Most common in early adulthood; friendship selection and socialization
2. Mood disorders-typically depression; biological predisposition, but triggered by stress
3. Anxiety disorders-include, for instance, OCD, PTSD, and panic attacks. More common than mood disorders; related to serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake
4. Schizophrenia-Symptoms may start already during adolescence, but diagnosis is rare prior to early adulthood (symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized "life"). Biological predispositions activated by stress: genetic predisposition, malfunction of amygdala and neurotransmitters.
Intimacy vs. isolation
Need to belong is the core motive of human life. Closeness and affiliation in friendships increase during adolescence. Not necessarily a romantic change, both genders need friends. Question is, are you able to connect with other people enough to go to vulnerable place to experience intimacy? Easier with friends than romantic partners. Relationships don't last without intimacy.
Gateways to attraction
1. Physical attraction
2. Apparent availability
3. Frequent exposure-you fall for who you spend time with, important to DATE YOUR SPOUSE
4. Absence of exclusion criteria- jews only dating jews, athletes looking for athletes, etc. To feel attraction must be free of exclusion criteria.
EVEN APPLY TO FRIENDSHIPS
• aspects/stages of love and their meaning in the relationship
1. Passion-needed but not enough (decreases over time)
2. Intimacy-physical and psychological closeness. Marker of a "lasting" relationship
3. Commitment-follows from intimacy, characteristic of a mature relationship.
Only through emotional passion and intimacy lead to commitment (engagement, marriage). Must have something to fall back on when the passion fades. Necessary that both are willing to commit.
Commitment only=emoty love
Passion and intimacy=romantic love
Passion and commitment=fetacious love
Intimacy and commitment=companion love (older couples, still a deep love)
• myths and reality of romantic relationships
• myths and reality of romantic relationships
Timing: Getting together early or later?- high school sweet hearts were made for each other
• Actual duration of the relationship? Identity and other developmental factors?
• Don't usually last because epeople change in college, plans change, personalities change a little, we get to know ourselves better. Those that last say that it's hard work every day.
Similarity: "they should really get together"- Relationships bevefit from similarity, but it can also diminish passion.
• Homogamy-looking for similar characteristics still requires compomises.
• Ideal: some similarity, some complementary. Exclusion criteria matters. In objective way you should be different, like personalities and hobbies.
Conflicts:characteristic of bad relationship?
• Not a strong predictor of separation because confrontation leads to development.
• Nature of conflicts and solving strategies matter. As long as you can address and solve them, they're okay.
• the physical effects of aging during adulthood
Increased blood pressure, even if take care of yourself will most likely still increase, always need cardio. higher levels of "bad" cholesterol, decreases in collagen and body height, decreases in muscle fiber and slower metabolism, muscles decrease in size. Bone density forms whne younger, helps decrease loss as age. Good posture is SO IMPORTANT.
Relationship between chronological age and developmental adjustment—Becomes increasingly obscure! Individual variation is increasingly relevant!
Sense organs-variation in the aging process within and between organs. Hearing most accurate 10-12, we don't feel until we're older. Can't hear high pitch tones as well as we age. Vision not affected till after hearing. Within-senses change too, near-sightedness worse when younger, far sightendess worse as age.
The brain changes in adulthood-Gradual decline in synapses and in neurons. Losing synpases matters because they connect the brain. Decreases in the size (especially gray matter). Reaciton time declines, along with complex memory and multitasking abilities. Effect of sleep becomes more important. Brain functioning influenced by stress, blood circulation, and substance abuse. Individual differences become stronger across adulthood!
• how life-style (e.g., exercise and eating habits) influence aging
Substance abuse-especially harmful because brain senescence has already begun. Cognitive tasks are more easily influenced.
Exercise-Mental-continuous challenging of the brain keeps "connections" functioning, buffers against further losses. Physical-enhanced blood circulation has beneficial effects for both the body and the brain; personal commitment, supportive environment?
Eating habits-balanced nutrition while resisting obesity, influenced by genes, child rearing, and culture.
• the effects of gender and SES on aging and health
Gender-aging is more concerning for women, but they actually age slower and live longer. Women have higher risk for several illnesses because of more complicated reproductive system, but are more active in health protection. Women are also more social, which could help their psychological health when they suffer from losing a loved one, health, etc.
SES-finances, education, and the social context: better health for high SES individuals. DISEASES OF AFFLUENCE no longer true. Was true that in early 20th century, people with money had diseases others didn't because they smoked, drank, did drugs, etc. Didn't know risks back then. Today, and for a few decades, those with higher SES have better healthy and healthcare. Even education helps you know a better lifestyle. Can afford MRIs and prevention.
• how intelligence can be measured/conceptualized
Intelligence is influenced by nature (biological potential) and nature (education, experiences). Certain ages trends in reasoning and cognitive development can be identified, but is important to understand that.
Flynn effect- we need to normatize IQ scores because of increase in education now.
IQ scores improve until age of 36, intellectual potential is unimpaired longer than we originally thought. Cross-sequential research supports this notion.
• how aging affects forms of intelligence
IQ is influenced by genes, experiences, and age.
Fluid intelligence-quick, flexible, requires efficient working memory. DECLINES WITH AGE
Crystallized intelligence-reflects cumulative knowledge, reflected in long-term memory functioning. Gets better with age.
Sternberg saw analytic, creative, and practical intelligence. Different associations with age, and valued differently in cultures?
• concepts used to measure health (in the slide/p. 569 onwards in the book)
Mortality, morbidity, vitality, and disability relate to health.
Mortality- Death. As a measure of health, mortality usually refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a given population.
Morbidity-Disease. As a measure of health, morbidity usually refers to the rate of diseases in a given population-physical and emotional, acute (sudden) and chronic (ongoing).
Vitality-A measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic-physically, intellectually, and socially-an individual actually feels.
Disability-Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some physical, MENTAL, OR EMOTIONAL condition.
• why cross-sectional and longitudinal research on intelligence may provide
Best way to examine aging and intelligence is cross sequential or cohort sequential, then longitudinal. Last is cross-sectional. Cross sequential and cohort sequential help control for differences in education.
the idea of the 'optimization with compensation' model by Baltes
Some aspects of intelligence change over life-span, some increase, some decrease, physiological losses may be compensated by "cognitive reserve."
Selective optimization with compensation-individuals seek to optimize their development by looking for ways to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become better in activities they are already excelling in. Example-woman stops driving to mall because daughter fears driving skills, but keeps her independence and satisfaction by taking the bus to a closer store.
expert cognition and how aging may negatively/positively affect work life
Expert cognition=accumulation of knowledge, practice, and experience.
1. Intuition-from rule following to experience guided expectances
2. Automaticity-from conscious processes to automatic (implicit/subconscious) processes
3. Strategic-strategies for specific tasks are efficient and flexible (strategy compensation!)
4. Flexibility-experiencing challenge under atypical situations
Older workers have potential to be experts instead of "has-beens." Cognitive and physical abilities decline, but expert cognition can be used to compensate for these losses. Successful compensation depends on the job at hand and the motivation of the worker. (Older waiters make a lot of tips because use strategies to keep up with young ones and know all the "tricks" for getting tips.)
-timetable based on social norms. Influenced by culture, societal context, SES. Example, no pressure to marry now in IS, but if in Israel would. Lower SES leads to quicker social clock. More SES=more education, delay in marriage, kids, job, etc.
Core human needs (motives) are:
1. agency (status, performance, competence)
2. Closeness with others (relationships, affiliation)
Achieving these goals provides well-being.
Erikson's stages for adulthood
Erikson realized adulthood still has staging. Still "finding ourselves," ex. Stay at home mom going back to college, dad stops working so much and develops relationship with kids. Many divorces happen in 40s when kids are older and a little more independent. Readjust your thinking, identity changes, evaluate if happy with marriage.
Identity vs. Role diffusion-Although the identity crisis was originally set for adolescence, Erikson realized that identity concerns could be lifelong. Identity combines values and traditions from childhood with the current social context. Since contexts keep evolving, many adults reassess all four types of identity (sexual/gender, vocational/work, religious/spiritual, and political/ethnic).
• Intimacy vs. Isolation-Adults seek intimacy-a close, reciprocal connection with another human being. Intimacy is mutual, not self-absorbed, which means that adults need to devote time and energy to one other. This process begins in emerging adulthood and continues lifelong. Isolation is especially likely when divorce or death disrupts established intimate relationships.
Generativity vs. Stagnation-Adults need to care for the next generation, either by raising their own children or by mentoring, teaching, and helping younger people. Erikson's first description of this stage focused on parenthood, but later he included other ways to achiev generativity. Adults extend the legacy of their culture and their generation with ongoing care, creativity, and sacrifice.
Integrity vs. Despair-Integrity with the goal of combating prejudice and helpgin all humanity is too important to be left to the elderly. He also thought that each person's entire life could be directed toward connecting a personal journey with the historical and cultural purpose of human society, the ultimate achievement of integrity.
period of unusual anxiety, radical reexamination, and sudden transformation that is widely associated with middle age but which actually has more to do with developmental history than with chronological age. No evidence to support this like in 70's, but those were a time of high anxiety for men because women had liberation and it changed things.
group of people providing protective social relationships. Reflected in the ecological niche to some extent. Reflected in ecological niche to some extent, but smaller and different. These are the people who would actually be there for you in the middle of the night. SO NECESSARY especially if not married.
The Big Five
Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience.
Temperament research suggests that temperament changes from early childhood to adolescence somewhat. Life experiences mold temperament/personality. However, more extreme profiles of temperament tend to be persistent across lifetime. Personality research suggests that on average, personality traits are relatively stable, especially during adulthood. However, new line of research indicates more changes than previously thought. Average mean level changes in age stages causes developmental changes in personality. Example, older people have less social vitality, social dominance, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability increased. Openness to experience decreases towards end of lifespan. Become more emotionally comfortable with self.
personality influences the social context and lifestyle that one chooses. Environment and individual influence each other. Experiences feed traits and engagement with people with similar traits. They both influence each other.
Cultural effects on personality
Basic personality characteristics tend to be fairly stable. Similar across cultures. On average, more individual variation within than between cultures. The big five patterns replicate across cultures and the trait-behavior relationships are roughly similar.
Gender effects on personality
Gender differences in social development (behaviors, interaction patterns) are clear in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, but seem to diminish over the course of adulthood. GENDER CONVERGENCE.
males mellow and women become feisty. Maybe women rediscover themselves when children grown. Men maybe feel less need to dominate once receive leadership position at work.
Characteristics of healthy/happy marriage:
• age of newlyweds-older tend to last longer
• Age of married couple-most marital satisfaction is experienced between 25-40.
• SES (education and income) has positive effects-fewer health problems and longer relationships
• Attachment style matters-Securely attached individuals perform more relationship maintenance behaviors, perceive their partners more positively than individuals with insecure attachment. Insecurely attached (avoidant and anxious) individuals experience lower levels of sexual satisfaction.
about 50% of marriages in U.S. end up in divorce. Increase in divorce rates across nations, negative effects on income, social relationships. Several societal characteristics of marriages ending at divorce have been identified, but psychological processes for these are less known.
Risk factors of divorce
• For women, but not men, coming from divorced families: lower commitment to and confidence in the relationship.
• In second marriages, bringing stepchildren into marriage provides a stressor, not prior cohabitation or the spouse's children.
• SES and stress in general (financial, social, other) puts strain on marriage. Higher allostatic load> Idea of need for hierarchy?
o Allostatic load-combined burden of stress observed in lower SES couples.
• three theoretical approaches to aging (and main concepts in each)
1. Wear and tear perspective
2. Genetic Adaption
3. Cellular Aging
Wear and tear perspective
a. Human body has a certain duration and gets eventually exhausted by ordinary life. Organ reserve and other mechanisms try to fight this.
b. Disposable soma theory- bodies are disposable.
c. Empirical evident from athletes and workers conducting physical labor-when have too much exercise body gets worse because overloaded. Women who have biological children tend to die younger. But body also needs to be used and some body parts can be replaced
a. DNA code provides a genetic clock. Growth and aging process are controlled by hormones, cellular reproduction and repair (varies individually because of genetics). Genes provide an inherent maximum life span but average life expectancy depends on societal factors.
b. (longevity could be decreasing because of medical care, diseases, poor food, etc.)
a. Aging occurs due to aging and damaging of the cells in our bodies. Errors in cell reproduction and duplication caused by biological aging that induces them in cell reproduction, errors in the instructions provided by DNA, and external circumstances like stress and exposure to certain chemicals. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS can damage cells.
b. Free radicals in cells are especially likely to increase "duplication errors."
c. Hayflick limit-natural limit of cell replication, maximum life span limit for given species?
multidisciplinary study of old age. Not necessarily illness, stereotypes regarding older people etc. are studied.
the medical specialty devoted to aging. Equate aging and illness
a shift in the proportions of the populations of various ages. Increasing number of older people, especially centenarians. Increasing longevity due to nutrition, health care, and so on. Dependency ratio getting smaller? Modern technology enables to cope better with this, birth rate continues to fall when longevity increases, dependency on others is not inevitable.
universal senescence, influences organ reserve, homeostasis, the immune system.
physical conditions and illnesses that increase with age, but are influenced by health habits (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dementia, etc.) Example, high blood pressure is primary, but cardiovascular disease is secondary.
• physical changes in the brain due to aging
Shrinks (especially hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex), exercise helps blood flow which helps battle Alzheimer's, etc.. Reduced production of neurotransmitters, less neural fluid, slower blood flow. Slower cognitive functioning (reaction times, problem solving, speech). Efficient use of multiple brain areas greatly influenced by blood circulation, nutrition, and exercise.
• how and why sleep is more likely to be impaired at older age
Electrical activity in brain decreases, so proportion of deep sleep decreases, increased rate of awakenings. Medication has higher likelihood to induce impaired cognitive functioning, as do other substances like alcohol and caffeine. Compensation is possible by taking the most out of limited sleep time. Social effects also influence sleep patterns, like dozing off during the day because waking up at night. Very individual, genes, and environment matter.
Can lead to problems driving.
three ways aging is reflected in cognitive functioning
1. Senses and perception
3. Control Processes
Senses and perception
a. Dulling of the senses-touch, taste, smell, hearing becomes weaker, beginning from puberty. No notable declines until later in life
b. Psychological reactions-denial vs. acceptance. If you're okay with aging and accept the help, you'll be fine psychologically (using hearing aids, glasses, etc). Rebutting it withdraws from social interaction, takes away enjoyment of TV and books, leads to depression and less cognitive function. Way we react makes big difference for adjustment.
c. Cognitive processing may be impaired due to -decreased sensory input (sensory threshold becomes higher), interference-less important information interferes by capturing attention, psychology-unwillingness to use a hearing aid.
a. Working (short-term) memory-gets impaired with age due to lowered sensory input and interference, for instance, dual tasking becomes difficult.
b. Long-term memory-features like vocabulary relatively unimpaired. Timing of the events matters: events over a longer periods of time are typically easier to remember than events from the recent past (interference and psychological processes hamper with the adequate recall).
c. Selectivity in information recall-the domain of expertise matters. Source amnesia (Remember info, but don't remember where it came from). Tendency to recall positive/happy events becomes pronounced.
selective, attention, logical analysis, retrieval, etc.). Depend largely on the function of the prefrontal cortex. Logical analysis, deductive thinking, becomes more rigid. Top-down processes in cognitive processing are pronounced
brains to expressional behavior, example-recalling information to take the exam. Don't take in new info as much, rely on memories, experiences and stereotypes.
Sensing something, taking information in. Much more pronounced when younger
Four theories that help us understand differences in aging
1. identity development
2. Selective optimization
a. Identity vs. role confusion (originally encountered in adolescence, but comes back). Each new experience, gain or loss, requires identity reassessment. Familiar pillars of self-concept crumble.
b. Appearance, health, and employment. Accepting one's key personality traits? Assimilation (interpreting everything as old patterns) vs. Accomodation (abandoning one's identity in the face of new contexts) strategies.
Finding a balance between learning to adapt to new hobbies without losing yourself-. Figure out how to accomplish what they want ot achieve despite the limitation and declines of later life. Some optimize experiences more than others and compensate, increase in positivity.
emphasize that social forces, particularly those related to a person's social stratum or social category, limit individual choices and affect the ability to function in late adulthood as past stratification continues to limit life in various ways. Example, age, gender, ethnicity. Social demographic groups.
Focus on the transformations of late adulthood an don how individuals react to such events. Don't think of life as constant, think of it as changing.
a. Emphasize change and readjustment rather than either the ongoing self or the impact of stratification-life is seen as active, ever-changing.
b. Adaptive change (well-being) vs. resistance to change (ill-being). Accepting changes vs. over control and /or rigidity in goal setting.
people over age 65 who are physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively impaired. Care for elderly differs drastically in different cultures.
Activities of daily life
actions that are important to independent living, typically consisting of five tasks of self-care; eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from a bed to a chair-the inability to perform any of these tasks is a sign of frailty.
Instrumental activities of daily life
important to independent living, require some intellectual competence and forethought->even more important for self-sufficiency than ADL tasks.
- Relationship between grandparents and grandchildren depends partly on nature of relationship between grandparents and grandchildren, as well as age of the child.
Four approaches to grandparenting
1. Remote grandparents-emotionally distant from grandchildren. Esteemed elders who are honored, respected, and obeyed, expecting to get help whenever they need it.
2. Companionate grandparents-entertain and spoil grandchildren-especially in ways or for reasons that parents would not.
3. Involved grandparents-are active in the day to day lives of their grandchildren. Live near them and see them daily.
4. Surrogate parents-raise their grandchildren, usually because parents are unwilling or unable to do so.
Right now most elderly have been married, but new generations will not have many marriages. Increase in unmarried elderly will most likely increase size of social networks. Elderly who have never been married usually have friendships, activities, and social connections that keep them busy and happy. However, older adults need at least one close companion, usually a spouse, but can be a friend
Beanpole family becoming more popular-many generations with few people in each. Keep being "parents," to middle-aged children, and children still get frustrated with their parents. Filial responsibility-children feel responsible for their parents, but who they see that differs with each culture. Conflict between old and young more likely in emotional close than distant relationships. Relationships factors between old and young:
1. Assistance arises from need and from ability to provide
2. Frequency of contact is related to geographical proximity, not affection
3. Love is influenced by the interaction remembered from childhood
4. Sons feel stronger obligations; daughters feel stronger affection.
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