Chapter 2: The Planting of English America
Vocab and Discussion Topics
Terms in this set (37)
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Island colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh that mysteriously disappeared in the 1580's.
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel.
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world.
A legal document giving certain rights to a person or company.
1st permanent English settlement in North America.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
Series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaigns against the Irish.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Indians last effort to dislodge Virginians, they were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 stopped any hope of creating native peoples into Virginia society or peace with coexisting.
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.
Act of Toleration
Guaranteed toleration to all Christians; decreed death penalty to those who didn't believe in Jesus.
Barbados Slave Code
It gave masters almost complete control over their slave including harsh punishment for slight misbehavior.
Poor farmers in North Carolina occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil.
An alliance of northeastern Amerindian peoples that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English.
Conflict between colonists from North Carolina and local Indians; aided by heavily armed neighbors from the south, the colonists crushed the Indians, selling hundreds into slavery and leaving survivors homeless.
Defeated by the south Carolinans in the war of 1715-1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the Southern colonies.
A piece of land that was used to protect the more valuable colonies from enemies.
His desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
English queen who created a strong, centralized monarchy based on national unity and a sharing of power between monarchy and Parliament.
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
Captain John Smith
An English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
An Indian chieftain who dominated the peoples in the James River area. All the tribes loosely under his control came to be called Powhatan's confederacy.
daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him. Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
Lord De La Warr
Arrived in Jamestown in 1610, he was a veteran of the vicious campaigns against the Irish and introduced "Irish Tactics" in a campaign against the Indians. His troops attacked Indian villages and torched cornfields.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War.
English leader who founded the colony of Georgia as a place where debtors from England could begin new lives
A native American chieftain and leader of the Iroquois tribe who argued for peace with the European settlers.
Summarize the major factors that led England to Begin Colonization.
Even though the Spanish had a lot of control in America, North America was unclaimed. Britain didn't really colonize because of internal conflicts. King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church and he launched the English Protestant Reformation. After Elizabeth I became queen, Britain became basically Protestant, and a rivalry with Catholic Spain grew more intense. The English crushed an uprising, in Ireland, and went to America, where they established power and colonization.
Describe the development of the Jamestown colony from its disastrous beginnings to its later prosperity.
Jamestown was founded by 100 English settlers that disembarked from their ships. It was founded on May 24, 1607. Captain John Smith took over the town. The "starving winter" of 1609-1610 killed approximately 340 of the 400 settlers who came to Virginia, by 1609. in 1610, Lord De La Warr arrived to Jamestown with supplies and military. He started the First Anglo-Powhatan War, and the Chesapeake were defeated, again, in the Second war in 1644. The natives were banished and by 1685, they were considered to be extinct. The tobacco plant became extremely popular in Europe which gave the colony a economic foundation.
Describe the cultural and social interaction and exchange between English settlers and Indians in Virginia, and the effects of the Virginians' policy of warfare and forced removal.
The white settlers craved what the natives had, land. The English could have been allies to the natives if they had not been so destructive and greedy to the Indians. When Lord De La Warr arrived in Jamestown he declared war on the natives. There would be two Anglo-Powhatan wars. The second would led to the banishment of the natives. The fate of the Powhatans would be the same as natives all over the continent. Some natives had the chance to buy firearms; a competition in game was increased among the Indians.
Describe changes in the economy and labor system in Virginia and the other southern colonies.
The plantations and farms of the colonies were the foundation of the economy of the New World. Growing and exporting goods were the colonies purpose. As plantations grew the settlers needed more labor to work them. The best labor they could get were slaves from Africa. The Barbados code gave the masters almost complete control over the slaves. Carolina was the first to have their own adaption of the code.
Indicate the similarities and differences among the southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Tobacco was commonly grown everywhere, but North and South Carolina grew rice as well. Slavery was also common in all plantation colonies. Slavery wasn't allowed in Georgia until 1750. Confrontations with natives was also common. Maryland depended a lot on Catholic religion as a way of life, and if you didn't have a religion, or were Jewish, then you would be killed. Unlike Maryland, Georgia, was meant to be a haven for wretched souls in debt. Virginia had a self-government and North and South Carolina expanded by developing close economic ties with the West Indies.