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the study of external and internal structures and the physical relationship between body parts


the study of function


study of human movement across all of its dimensions


primary goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms and consequences of human movement


structures that cannot be seen without magnification


analyzes the internal structure of cells


broader prospective- examines tissues


groups of specialized cells that work together to perform specific functions


considers relatively large structure and features visible to the unaided eye

Surface anatomy

refers to the study of the general form and superficial anatomical markings

Regional anatomy

considerall of the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body such as the head, neck, or trunk

Systemic anatomy

considers the structure of major organ systems such as the skeletal or muscular system

chemical or molecular level

four- hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen make up 99% of the total number of atoms which interact to form compounds with distinctive properties

Cellular level

smallest living units in the body; contain internal structures called organelles; made up of complex chemicals

Tissue level

cells areconnected to form distinctive _____; that work together to perform a particular function

organ level

two or more different types of tissues with specific functions form a distinctive _____

system level

consists of realted organs that have a common function


when the systems are functioning normally, the characteristics of the internal environment will be relatively stable

integumentary system

protection from environmental hazards; temperature control

skeletal system

support, protection of soft tissues; minteral storage; blood formation

muscular system

locomotion, support, heat production

nervous system

directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems

endocrine system

directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems

cardiovascular system

internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases

lymphoid system

defense against infection and disease

respiratory system

delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood

digestive system

processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water

urinary system

elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH

reproductive system

production of sex cells and hormones

anatomical position

standing wit hthe legs together, feet flat on the floor, hands at sides, and the palms facing forward


lying down, face up, in the anatomical position


lying down, face down, in the anatomical position


the front; before


the belly side


the back; behind


the back


towards the head


same as cranial


above; at a higher level


toward the tail


below; at a lower level; toward the feet


toard the midline


away from the midline


toward an attached base


away from an attached base


at, near, or relatively close to the body surface


toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface


are of head


are of neck


the chest


the segment of the upper limb closest to the trunk; the arm


the forearm


the wrist


the hand


the abdomen


the pelvis in general


the anterior pelvis


the groin


the lower back


the buttock


the thigh


the kneecap


the leg, from knee to ankle


the calf


the ankle


plantar region of the foot

transverse plane

lies at right angles to the long axis of the body dividing it into superior and inferior sections

frontal plane

is parallel to the long axis of the body dividing it into anterior and posterior sections

sagittal plane

parallel to the long axis of the body dividing it into left and right sections


structural building blocks of all plants and animals; smallest structural units that perform all vital functions

sex cells

sperm or oocytes

somatic cells

all other cells in body

cell membrane

separates the cell contents from the extracellualr fluid; extremely thin; composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycolipids, and cholesterol

phospholipid bilayer

heads on the surface and tails on the inside

dissolved ions and water-soluble compounds

cannot cross the lipid portion of the cell membrane because the lipid tails are hydrophobic

cell membrane

very effective in isolating the cytoplasm from the surrounding extracellular fluid environment

Physical Isolation

cell membrane function; lipid bilayer forms a physical barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the surrounding extracellular fluid

Regulation of the exchange with the environment

cell membrane function; controls the entry of ions and nutrients, the elimination of wastets, and the release of secretory products


cell membrane function; first part of cell affected by changes in the extracellular environment; contains receptors that allow the cell to recognize and respond to specific molecules nad to communicate with other cells

structural support

specialized connections between cell membranes or between membranes and extracellular materials give tissues a stable structure

cell membrane

selectively permeable


nothing can cross

freely permeable

any substance can cross without difficulty

selectively permeable

permits the free passage of some materials and restricts the passage of others


the effectiveness of the membrance as a barrier is determined by its ___________

selectively permeable

restrictions may be based on: size, electrical charge, molecular shape, solubility, combination


varies depending on the organization and characteristics of membrane lipids and proteins

passive processes

move ions or molecules across the cell membrane without any energy expenditure by the cell

passive processes

diffusion; osmosis; facilitated diffusion

active processes

requires that the cell draws on an energy source; usually ATP

active processes

active transport; endocytosis

concentration gradient

a difference in the concentration of a chemical from one place to another; inside to the outside of the cell membrane

selective permeability

allows the cell to maintain different concentrations of selected substances on either side of the plasma membrane


the net movement of a material from an area of relatively high concentration to an area of relatively low concentration

concentration gradient

difference between the high and low concentrations


continues until the gradent has been eliminated; gets rid of concentration gradient


-active cell generates CO2 and absorbs O2
-extracellualr fluid increases [CO2] and decreases [O2]
-bloodstream decreases [CO2] and increases [O2]
-____distributes such that the active cell maintains a supply of O2


the diffusion of water across a membrane from a region of high [water] to low [water[

cell membranes

very permeable to water

osmotic gradient exists

water molecules diffuse rapidly until _______ is eliminated


water movement


movement of solutes

facilitated diffusion

no ATP used; passive transportation of compounds across cell membranes by special carrier proteins

facilitated diffusion

molecule first binds toa receptor site on an integral membrane protein; the carrier protein changes shape and the molecule is then moved to the inside of the cell membrane and released into the cytoplasm

facilitated diffusion

glucose and amino acids are transported across cell membranes via _______

active processes

all require energy; cell can transport substances against their concentration gradient

active transport

energy in the form of ATP required; specific enzymes and carrier proteins must be present

active transport

not dependent on concentration gradient; can import or export regardless of intracellualr or extracellualr conccentration

active transport

all living cells show _____ ________ of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium; ion pumps

sodium potassium pump

1- three Na+ in the cytosol bind to protein
2- this triggers hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and attaches a phosphate group to protein (shape of protein favors binding of 2 K+ which changes shape of protein to expell the three Na+
3- binding of K+ triggers release of phorphate group causing protein to change shape again
4- as protein is back to original shape, it releases K+ and is ready to bind three Na+ again


the packaging of extracellular materials into a vescicle at the cell surgace for importation into the cell


involves large volumes of extracellular material; bulk transport


pinocytosis; phagocytosis; receptor-mediated endocytosis


produces small membrane-bound compartments called endosomes


contents will enter the cell through active transport, simple or facilitated diffusion or the destruction of the vesicle membrane


general term for all of the material inside the cell; contains more proteins than the extracellualr fluid


two major subdivisions- cytosol and organelles


contains dissolbed nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble proteins, and waste products; separated from the extracellualr fluid by the cell membrance; three important differences from extracellualr fluid

three major differences between cytosol and extracellular fluid

- cytosol contains high [potassium ions] while extracellular fluid has high [sodium ions] and numbers of + and - ions are not in balance
-cytosol contains a high concentration of dissolbed and suspended proteins that give it consistency
-cytosol contains small quantitites of carbs and large reserves of amino acids and lipids

Transmembrane Potential

extracellular has a net excess of + charges while intracellular has a net excess of - charges


in cytosol- used for energy

amino acids

in cytosol- used to manufacture proteins


in cytosol- provide energy when carbohydrdates are not available


masses of insoluble material found in the cytosol


most common are stored nutrients like glycogen granules or lipid droplets found in the cytosol


intracellular structures that perform specific funtions; found in all body cells


two broad categories- non membranous and membranous

nonmembranous organelles

always in contact with cytosol

membranous organelles

surrounded by membranes


nonmembranous organelle; found in all cells (amount varies); small dense granular structures;


consists of 60% RNA and 40% protein


intracellular factories that manufacture proteins using information provided by the DNA of the nucleus


consists of two subunits that interlock as protein syntheses begins; subunits separate when protein syntheses is complete

free ribosomes

scattered throughout the cytoplasm; manufacture proteins that enter the cytosol

fixed ribosomes

attached to the ER; manufacture proteins that enter the lumen of the ER


unique double membrane structure; outer membrance surrounds the entire organelle; inner membrane contains numerous folds "cristae"


increase the surface area that are exposed to the fluid contents- or matrix- of the mitochondrion


contains metabolic enzymes that perform the reactions that provide energy from the mitochondrion for cellular functions


produces 95% energy needed to keep the cell alive


control their own maintenance, growth, and reproduction; amount in cell dependent upon the cell's energy demands


requires high rates of energy consumption so more mitochondria; mitochondria reproduce;


control center for cellular operations


stores all the information needed to control the syntheses of approximately 100,000 different proteins


controls what proteins are synthesized and in what amounts; determines the structural and functional characeristics of the cell

perinuclear space

space created by and between double cell membrane


fluid content of the nucleus

nuclear pores

complex of proteins that regulates movement of molecules in and out of nucleus- chemical communication

nuclear envelope

double membrane surrounds nucleus and separates from cytosol and connected to ER

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