161 terms

Anatomical Kinesiology Lec 1-5

the study of external and internal structures and the physical relationship between body parts
the study of function
study of human movement across all of its dimensions
primary goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms and consequences of human movement
structures that cannot be seen without magnification
analyzes the internal structure of cells
broader prospective- examines tissues
groups of specialized cells that work together to perform specific functions
considers relatively large structure and features visible to the unaided eye
Surface anatomy
refers to the study of the general form and superficial anatomical markings
Regional anatomy
considerall of the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body such as the head, neck, or trunk
Systemic anatomy
considers the structure of major organ systems such as the skeletal or muscular system
chemical or molecular level
four- hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen make up 99% of the total number of atoms which interact to form compounds with distinctive properties
Cellular level
smallest living units in the body; contain internal structures called organelles; made up of complex chemicals
Tissue level
cells areconnected to form distinctive _____; that work together to perform a particular function
organ level
two or more different types of tissues with specific functions form a distinctive _____
system level
consists of realted organs that have a common function
when the systems are functioning normally, the characteristics of the internal environment will be relatively stable
integumentary system
protection from environmental hazards; temperature control
skeletal system
support, protection of soft tissues; minteral storage; blood formation
muscular system
locomotion, support, heat production
nervous system
directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems
endocrine system
directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems
cardiovascular system
internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases
lymphoid system
defense against infection and disease
respiratory system
delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
digestive system
processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water
urinary system
elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH
reproductive system
production of sex cells and hormones
anatomical position
standing wit hthe legs together, feet flat on the floor, hands at sides, and the palms facing forward
lying down, face up, in the anatomical position
lying down, face down, in the anatomical position
the front; before
the belly side
the back; behind
the back
towards the head
same as cranial
above; at a higher level
toward the tail
below; at a lower level; toward the feet
toard the midline
away from the midline
toward an attached base
away from an attached base
at, near, or relatively close to the body surface
toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface
are of head
are of neck
the chest
the segment of the upper limb closest to the trunk; the arm
the forearm
the wrist
the hand
the abdomen
the pelvis in general
the anterior pelvis
the groin
the lower back
the buttock
the thigh
the kneecap
the leg, from knee to ankle
the calf
the ankle
plantar region of the foot
transverse plane
lies at right angles to the long axis of the body dividing it into superior and inferior sections
frontal plane
is parallel to the long axis of the body dividing it into anterior and posterior sections
sagittal plane
parallel to the long axis of the body dividing it into left and right sections
structural building blocks of all plants and animals; smallest structural units that perform all vital functions
sex cells
sperm or oocytes
somatic cells
all other cells in body
cell membrane
separates the cell contents from the extracellualr fluid; extremely thin; composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycolipids, and cholesterol
phospholipid bilayer
heads on the surface and tails on the inside
dissolved ions and water-soluble compounds
cannot cross the lipid portion of the cell membrane because the lipid tails are hydrophobic
cell membrane
very effective in isolating the cytoplasm from the surrounding extracellular fluid environment
Physical Isolation
cell membrane function; lipid bilayer forms a physical barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the surrounding extracellular fluid
Regulation of the exchange with the environment
cell membrane function; controls the entry of ions and nutrients, the elimination of wastets, and the release of secretory products
cell membrane function; first part of cell affected by changes in the extracellular environment; contains receptors that allow the cell to recognize and respond to specific molecules nad to communicate with other cells
structural support
specialized connections between cell membranes or between membranes and extracellular materials give tissues a stable structure
cell membrane
selectively permeable
nothing can cross
freely permeable
any substance can cross without difficulty
selectively permeable
permits the free passage of some materials and restricts the passage of others
the effectiveness of the membrance as a barrier is determined by its ___________
selectively permeable
restrictions may be based on: size, electrical charge, molecular shape, solubility, combination
varies depending on the organization and characteristics of membrane lipids and proteins
passive processes
move ions or molecules across the cell membrane without any energy expenditure by the cell
passive processes
diffusion; osmosis; facilitated diffusion
active processes
requires that the cell draws on an energy source; usually ATP
active processes
active transport; endocytosis
concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a chemical from one place to another; inside to the outside of the cell membrane
selective permeability
allows the cell to maintain different concentrations of selected substances on either side of the plasma membrane
the net movement of a material from an area of relatively high concentration to an area of relatively low concentration
concentration gradient
difference between the high and low concentrations
continues until the gradent has been eliminated; gets rid of concentration gradient
-active cell generates CO2 and absorbs O2
-extracellualr fluid increases [CO2] and decreases [O2]
-bloodstream decreases [CO2] and increases [O2]
-____distributes such that the active cell maintains a supply of O2
the diffusion of water across a membrane from a region of high [water] to low [water[
cell membranes
very permeable to water
osmotic gradient exists
water molecules diffuse rapidly until _______ is eliminated
water movement
movement of solutes
facilitated diffusion
no ATP used; passive transportation of compounds across cell membranes by special carrier proteins
facilitated diffusion
molecule first binds toa receptor site on an integral membrane protein; the carrier protein changes shape and the molecule is then moved to the inside of the cell membrane and released into the cytoplasm
facilitated diffusion
glucose and amino acids are transported across cell membranes via _______
active processes
all require energy; cell can transport substances against their concentration gradient
active transport
energy in the form of ATP required; specific enzymes and carrier proteins must be present
active transport
not dependent on concentration gradient; can import or export regardless of intracellualr or extracellualr conccentration
active transport
all living cells show _____ ________ of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium; ion pumps
sodium potassium pump
1- three Na+ in the cytosol bind to protein
2- this triggers hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and attaches a phosphate group to protein (shape of protein favors binding of 2 K+ which changes shape of protein to expell the three Na+
3- binding of K+ triggers release of phorphate group causing protein to change shape again
4- as protein is back to original shape, it releases K+ and is ready to bind three Na+ again
the packaging of extracellular materials into a vescicle at the cell surgace for importation into the cell
involves large volumes of extracellular material; bulk transport
pinocytosis; phagocytosis; receptor-mediated endocytosis
produces small membrane-bound compartments called endosomes
contents will enter the cell through active transport, simple or facilitated diffusion or the destruction of the vesicle membrane
general term for all of the material inside the cell; contains more proteins than the extracellualr fluid
two major subdivisions- cytosol and organelles
contains dissolbed nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble proteins, and waste products; separated from the extracellualr fluid by the cell membrance; three important differences from extracellualr fluid
three major differences between cytosol and extracellular fluid
- cytosol contains high [potassium ions] while extracellular fluid has high [sodium ions] and numbers of + and - ions are not in balance
-cytosol contains a high concentration of dissolbed and suspended proteins that give it consistency
-cytosol contains small quantitites of carbs and large reserves of amino acids and lipids
Transmembrane Potential
extracellular has a net excess of + charges while intracellular has a net excess of - charges
in cytosol- used for energy
amino acids
in cytosol- used to manufacture proteins
in cytosol- provide energy when carbohydrdates are not available
masses of insoluble material found in the cytosol
most common are stored nutrients like glycogen granules or lipid droplets found in the cytosol
intracellular structures that perform specific funtions; found in all body cells
two broad categories- non membranous and membranous
nonmembranous organelles
always in contact with cytosol
membranous organelles
surrounded by membranes
nonmembranous organelle; found in all cells (amount varies); small dense granular structures;
consists of 60% RNA and 40% protein
intracellular factories that manufacture proteins using information provided by the DNA of the nucleus
consists of two subunits that interlock as protein syntheses begins; subunits separate when protein syntheses is complete
free ribosomes
scattered throughout the cytoplasm; manufacture proteins that enter the cytosol
fixed ribosomes
attached to the ER; manufacture proteins that enter the lumen of the ER
unique double membrane structure; outer membrance surrounds the entire organelle; inner membrane contains numerous folds "cristae"
increase the surface area that are exposed to the fluid contents- or matrix- of the mitochondrion
contains metabolic enzymes that perform the reactions that provide energy from the mitochondrion for cellular functions
produces 95% energy needed to keep the cell alive
control their own maintenance, growth, and reproduction; amount in cell dependent upon the cell's energy demands
requires high rates of energy consumption so more mitochondria; mitochondria reproduce;
control center for cellular operations
stores all the information needed to control the syntheses of approximately 100,000 different proteins
controls what proteins are synthesized and in what amounts; determines the structural and functional characeristics of the cell
perinuclear space
space created by and between double cell membrane
fluid content of the nucleus
nuclear pores
complex of proteins that regulates movement of molecules in and out of nucleus- chemical communication
nuclear envelope
double membrane surrounds nucleus and separates from cytosol and connected to ER
network of intracellular membranes that forms hollow tubes, flattened sheets, and rounded chambers
endoplasmic retinaculum functions
synthesis; storage; transport; detoxification
the membrane of the ER contains enzymes that manufacture carbohydrates and lipids
the ER can hold synthesized molecules or substances absorbed from the cytosol without affecting other cellualr operations
substances can travel from place to place within the cell inside the ER
cellular toxins can be absorbed by the ER and neutralized by enzymes on its membrane
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
contains fized ribosomes which synthesize proteins using instructions provided by a strand of RNA
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
most of the proteins and glycoproteins produced by the ____ are packaged into small membrane sacs that form transport vesicles that are delivered to the Golgi apparatus
Smooth Endopasmic Reticulum
no ribosomes are associated or attached
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
serves functions related to the syntheses of lipids and carbs, the storage of calcium ions, and the removal of inactive toxins
Golgi Apparatus
consists of flattened membrane discs called cisternae
Golgi Apparatus
syntheses and packaging of secretions; packaging of special enzymes for use in the cytosol; renewal or modification of cell membrane