How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

153 terms

Medical Terminology - A Living Language - Ch 4 - Section 1 - Vocabulary

Vocabulary related to the skeletal system.
STUDY
PLAY
bone marrow
site of blood cell production
osseous tissue
bone
ossification
the developmental process of bone formation
osteoblasts
• immature (embryonic) bone cells
• cells that create bone tissue
osteocytes
mature bone cells
types of bones
• long bones
• short bones
• flat bones
• irregular bones
long bones
• bones that are longer than they wide
• example: femur, humerus
• the majority of the bones in the human body are long bones
short bones
• bones that are roughly as long as they are wide
• example: carpals, tarsals
flat bones
• bones that are usually plate-shaped
• example: sternum, scapulae, pelvis
irregular bones
• bones that have very irregular shapes
• example: vertebrae
diaphysis
• central shaft of the long bone
• the main (mid) section of a long bone
epiphysis
wide (knobby) ends of long bones
articular cartilage
layer of cartilage covering the epiphysis of long bones that help provide bone from rubbing directly on bone
periosteum
thin connective tissue membrane covering the surface of the bone which contains numerous blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels
cortical
• compact bone
• dense and hard exterior surface bone
compact bone
• cortical
• dense and hard exterior surface bone
cancellous
spongy bone (cancellous) found inside the bone
spongy bone
cancellous (spongy bone) found inside the bone
red bone marrow
manufactures most of the blood cells and is found in some parts of all bones
medullary cavity
• medullary canal
• canal at the center of the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow
• only found in long bones
yellow bone marrow
bone marrow found in the medullary cavity and is mainly fat cells
process
• a general term for any bony projection
• some common bony processes include: head, condyle, epicondyle, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity
head
a large smooth ball-shaped end on a long bone
neck
separates the head from the body or shaft of the bone
condyle
a smooth rounded portion at the end of a bone (not ball-shaped like the head process)
epicondyle
a projection located above or on a condyle
trochanter
a large rough process for the attachment of a muscle
tuberosity
a large, rough process that provides the attachment of tendons and muscles
sinus
a hollow cavity within a bone
foramen
a smooth round opening for nerves and blood vessels
fossa
a shallow cavity or depression on the surface of a bone
fissure
a slit-type opening on a bone
axial skeleton
the center part of the skeleton that includes the skull, hyoid, sternum, ribs, spinal column
appendicular skeleton
• part of the skeleton that consists of the pectoral girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle and lower extremities
• bones for our appendages or limbs and along with the muscles attached to them
• responsible for body movement
cranium
• part of the skull
• 8 bones encasing the brain and consists of the frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), ethmoid, sphenoid, and occipital bones
facial bones
• part of the skull
• 14 bones surrounding the mouth, nose, and eyes and include the mandible, maxilla (2), zygomatic (2), vomer, palatine (2), inferior nasal concha (2), nasal (2) and lacrimal (2) bones
frontal bone
bone forming the forehead
parietal bone
2 bones forming the upper side of cranium and roof of skull
occipital bone
bone forming the back and base of skull
temporal bone
2 bones forming the sides and base of cranium
sphenoid bone
bat-shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull, floor, and sides of eye orbit
ethmoid bone
forms part of the eye orbit, nose and floor of cranium
lacrimal bone
2 bones forming the inner corner of each eye orbit
nasal bone
2 bones that form part of the nasal septum and support bridge of nose
inferior nasal concha
2 bones that are curved bony plates on lateral wall of nasal cavity
maxilla
2 bones forming the upper jaw
mandible
bone that forms the lower jaw
zygomatic bone
2 bones that form the cheekbones
vomer bone
bone forming the base of nasal septum
palatine bone
2 bones forming the hard palate of mouth and floor of the nose
hyoid bone
• U-shaped bone suspended in the neck between the mandible and larynx
• the point of attachment for swallowing and speech muscles
vertebral column
• spinal column
• divided into five sections: cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx
intervertebral disc
• disc composed of fibrocartilage to provide a cushion between vertebrae
• located between each pair of vertebrae from the cervical through the lumbar regions
rib cage
• serves to provide support for organs, such as the heart and lungs
• 12 pairs of of ribs attached at the back to the vertebral column
• 10 pairs are attached to the sternum in the front
• lowest 2 pairs are called floating ribs and are attached only to the vertebral column
cervical vertebra
vertebrae in the neck region (7 bones)
thoracic vertebra
vertebrae in the chest region with ribs attached (12 bones)
lumbar vertebra
vertebrae in the small of the back, about waist level (5 bones)
sacrum
five vertebrae that become fused into one triangular-shaped flat bone at the base of the vertebral column
coccyx
• tailbone
• three to five very small vertebrae attached to sacrum, often become fused
pectoral girdle
consist of the clavicle and scapula bones
upper extremities
bones include the clavicle, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
pelvic girdle
• os coxae
• innominate bone
• hipbone
• contains the ilium, ischium, and pubis
lower extremities
bones include the os coxae (ilium, ischium, pubic), femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
clavicle
collar bone (2 bones)
scapula
shoulder blade (2 bones)
humerus
upper arm bones (2 bones)
radius
forearm bone on thumb side of lower arm (2 bones)
ulna
forearm bone on little finger side of lower arm (2 bones)
carpal
bones of wrist (16 bones)
metacarpals
bones in palm of hand (10 bones)
phalanges
finger bones (28 bones); three in each finger and two in each thumb
toe bones (28 bones); three in each toe and two in each great toe
ilium
upper part of the hipbone/pelvic girdle (2 bones)
ischium
lower, rear part of the hipbone/pelvic girdle (2 bones)
pubis
front part of the hipbone/pelvic girdle (2 bones)
femur
• upper leg bone
• thigh bone
• longest and strongest bone of the body
patella
knee cap
tibia
• shin bone
• thicker lower leg bone
fibula
thinner, long bone in lateral side of lower leg
tarsels
ankle and heel bones (14 bones)
metatarsels
forefoot bones (10 bones)
articulation
(anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if the articulation allows motion)
types of joints
• synovial joints
• cartilaginous joints
• fibrous joints
joint capsule
encloses synovial joints and lined with synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint
bursa
• a saclike structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane
• commonly found between bones and ligaments or tendons
• function to reduce friction
synovial joints
• freely moving joints
• example: ball-and-socket found at the shoulder and hip
fibrous joints
• allow almost no movement since the ends of the bones are joined by thick fibrous tissue, which may even fuse into solid bone
• example: the sutures of the skull
cartilaginous joints
• allow for slight movement but hold bones firmly in place by a solid piece of cartilage
• example: the pubic symphysis, the point at which the left and right pubic bones meet in the front of the lower abdomen
kyphosis
• hunchback or humpback
• Abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine.
lordosis
• swayback
• abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
orthopedics
branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the musculoskeletal system
orthotic
a brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities
prosthesis
artificial device that is used as a substitute for a body part that is either congenitally missing or absent as a result of accident or disease
prosthetics
healthcare profession specializing in making artificial body parts
closed fracture
• simple fracture
• fracture in which there no open skin wound
simple fracture
• closed fracture
• fracture in which there no open skin wound
Colles' fracture
a common type of wrist fracture
comminuted fracture
fracture in which the bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into many small pieces or fragments
compound fracture
• open fracture
• fracture in which the skin has been broken through to the fracture
open fracture
• compound fracture
• fracture in which the skin has been broken through to the fracture
greenstick fracture
fracture in which there is an incomplete break; on side of bone is broken and the other side is bent (common in children due to their softer bones)
impacted fracture
fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other
oblique fracture
fracture at an angle to the bone
pathologic fracture
fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone
spiral fracture
Fracture in which the fracture line spirals around the shaft of the bone. Can be caused by a twisting injury and is often slower to heal than other types of fractures.
stress fracture
a slight fracture caused by repetitive low-impact forces, like running, rather than a single forceful impact
transverse fracture
complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
Ewing's sarcoma
malignant growth found in the shaft of long bones that spreads through the periosteum
osteogenic sarcoma
the most common type of bone cancer; usually begins in the osteocytes found at the ends of long bones
osteomalacia
softening of the bones caused by a deficiency of calcium
osteoporosis
decrease in bone mass that results in a thinning and weakening of the bone with resulting fractures; bone becomes more porous
Paget's disease
a fairly common metabolic disease of the bone from unknown causes; it usually attacks middle-aged and elderly people and is characterized by bone destruction and deformity
rickets
deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood that results in bone deformities, especially bowed legs
ankylosing spondylitis
inflammatory spinal condition that resembles rheumatoid arthritis; result in gradual stiffening and fusion of the vertebrae
herniated nucleus pulposus
• herniated disk
• ruptured disk
• herniation or protrusion of an intervertebral disk
scoliosis
abnormal lateral (left or right) curvature of the spine
spina bifida
congenital anomaly that occurs when a vertebra fails to fully form around the spinal cord
spinal stenosis
narrowing of the spinal canal causing pressure on the cord and nerves
spondylolisthesis
the forward sliding of a lumbar vertebra over the vertebra below it
spondylosis
specifically refers to ankylosing of the spine, but commonly used in reference to any degenerative condition of the vertebral column
whiplash
injury to bones in the cervical spine as a result of sudden movement forward and backward of the head and neck
bunion
inflammation of the bursa of the metatarsophalangeal joint (base of the big toe)
dislocation
occurs when the bone in a joint are displaced from their normal alignment and ends of the bones are no longer in contact
osteoarthritis
• OA
• arthritis resulting in degeneration of the bones and joints, especially those bearing weight; results in bone rubbing against bone
rheumatoid arthritis
• RA
• chronic form of arthritis with inflammation of the joints, swelling, stiffness, pain, and changes in the cartilage that can result in crippling deformities; considered to be an autoimmune disease
sprain
damage to the ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching, but no dislocation of the joint or fracture of the bone
subluxation
an incomplete dislocation, the joint alignment is disrupted, but the ends of the bones remain in contact
systemic lupus erythematosus
chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of connective tissue affects many systems that may include joint pain and arthritis
talipes
• clubfoot
• congenital deformity causing misalignment of the ankle joint and foot
clubfoot
• talipes
• congenital deformity causing misalignment of the ankle joint and foot
arthrography
visualization of a joint by radiographic study after injection of a contrast medium into the joint space
bone scan
a nuclear medicine procedure in which the patient is given a radioactive dye and then scanning equipment is used to visualize bones
dual-energy absorptiometry
measurement of bone density using low dose x-ray for the purpose of detecting osteoporosis
myelography
study of the spinal column after injecting opaque contrast material; particularly useful in identifying herniated nucleus pulposus pinching a spinal nerve
radiography
a diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rays to study the internal structure of the body; especially useful for visualizing bones and joints
arthroscopy
examination of the interior of a joint by entering the joint with an arthroscope
laminectomy
removal of the vertebral posterior arch to correct severe back problems and pain caused by compression of a spinal nerve
percutaneous diskectomy
a thin catheter tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk through the skin and the herniated or ruptured disk material is sucked out or or a laser is used to vaporize it
spinal fusion
surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae
total hip arthroplasty
• total hip replacement
• THR
• surgical reconstruction of a hip by implanting a prosthetic or artificial hip
total knee arthroplasty
• total knee replacement
• TKA
• surgical reconstruction of a knee joint by implanting a prosthetic knee joint
fixation
a procedure to stabilize a fractured bone while it heals
reduction
correcting a fracture by realigning the bone fragments
traction
applying a pulling force on a fractured or dislocated limb or the vertebral column in order to restore normal alignment
callus
the mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during its healing
cast
Application of a solid material to immobilize an extremity or portion of the body as a result of a fracture, dislocation, or server injury. It may be made of plaster of Paris or fiberglass.
chiropractic
Healthcare profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of misalignment conditions of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving heath.
crepitation
• crepitus
• The noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis.
creptius
• crepitation
• The noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis.
exostosis
a bone spur
cartilage
• strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone; lacks blood supply
• forms the model of the fetal skeleton and gradually replaced by osteoblast
os coxae
• pelvic girdle
• innominate bone
• hipbone
• contains the ilium, ischium, and pubis
innominate bone
• pelvic girdle
• os coxae
• hipbone
• contains the ilium, ischium, and pubis
hipbone
• pelvic girdle
• os coxae
• innominate bone
• contains the ilium, ischium, and pubis