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World War Archduke lol
Terms in this set (23)
What weapons were used in WWI?
chemical gases (mustard gas), tanks, submarines, airplanes, machine guns, hand grenade, flame thrower
Why the US entered WWI?
the official factor in the US's decision to enter the war, however, was Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in Feb 1917-a practice that had aroused American outrage in the early years of the war. Germany's leaders took this decisive step because they were desperate to break the British blockade that threatened to starve the central powers and hoped to use their submarines to do so. German military experts calculated that submarine attacks against the ships of Great Britain and all the ships headed to Great Britain would bring about the defeat of Great Britain in six months. by that time, however, both the American public and its leadership were invested in an allied victory, and thus Germany's decision brought the US into the war in April 1917.
Who started WWI?
Although the catalyst for war was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the assassin's bullets would have limited effect if there had not been deeper reasons for war. Indeed, the underlying causes for the war of 1914-1918 were many, including the intense nationalism, abrasive colonial rivalries, and a general struggle over the balance of power in Europe and in the world at large. Between 1871 and 1914, European governments adopted foreign policies that increased steadily the danger of war. So as to not find themselves alone in a hostile world, national leaders sought alignments with other powers. The establishment and maintenance in Europe of two hostile alliances-the Allies and the Central Powers-helped spread the war from the Balkans.
Was Germany responsible for causing WWI?
Germany was not responsible for causing WWI, but they made it worse than what it might have been.
Alliances dividing Europe
Alliances causing diplomatic failures
Competition between countries
How many people died in WWI?
Was WWI avoidable?
No. Even though the assassination of the archduke could have been avoided, the war would have still happened.
MANIACS and answer to "Who started WWI?"
How did the Allies win WWI?
because the US joined in (they had the supplies and power)
In 1920 the Treaty of Sevres effectively dissolved the empire, calling for the surrender of Ottoman Balkan and Arab provinces and the occupation of eastern and southern Anatolia by foreign powers. However, Turkish nationalists-led by the war hero Mustafa Kemal-set out to defy those terms. Kemal organized a national army that drove out Allied occupation forces, abolished the sultanate, and replaced it with the Republic of Turkey, with Ankara as its capital.
(the president of the United States, was peaceful but was forced to join the war) came up with the 14 points
(lead revolution in Russia) a revolutionary Marxist and the leader of the small but radical Bolshevik socialist party. was exiled in Switzerland, but the German High Command helped him return to Russia in the hope that he would foment revolution and bring about Russia's withdrawal from the war. He did and began calling for the transfer of legal authority to the soviets and advocated uncompromising opposition to the war. lead the Bolsheviks to eventually gain control of the Petrograd soviet. persuaded the central committee of the Bolshevik Party to organize an armed insurrection and seize power in the name of the all-russian national congress of soviets, which was then convening in Petrograd. eventually power passed from the provisional government into the hands of Lenin and the Bolshevik Party.
was assassinated by Gaurilo Princip / The Black Hand Gang, which led to the beginning of WWI
Russian communist party headed by Lenin (won the Russian revolution)
Mustard or Poison Gas
poisonous gas used as a weapon during WWI. Germans thought machine guns were immoral, but poisonous gas was okay (what the heck bro?)
meanwhile, the leaders of other nations viewed this new constellation of power with suspicion. this response was especially true of the French leaders, who still remembered France's humiliating defeat during the Franco-prussian war of 1870-1871. the statist regime of russia was equally disturbed by the new alignment of powers, especially by Germany's support of Austria, and British leaders were traditionally suspicious of any arrangement that seemed to threaten the balance of power on the continent. the result was that, in a series of agreements between 1904 and 1914, the most unlikely bedfellows formed the triple entente, a combination of nations commonly referred to as allies. the construction of such alliances made it difficult for diplomats to contain what otherwise might have been relatively small international crises. (I hate myself for typing all of this)
the triple alliance, also known as the central powers, grew out of the close relationship that developed between the leaders of Germany and Austria-hungary during the last three decades of the nineteenth century. in 1879 the governments of the two empires formed the dual alliance, a defensive pact that ensured reciprocal protection from a Russian attack and neutrality in case of an attack from any other power. fear of a hostile France motivated germans to enter into this pact, whereas Austrians viewed it as giving them a free hand in pursuing their balkan politics without fear of Russian intervention. Italy, fearful of France, joined the dual alliance in 1882, thereby transforming it into the triple alliance (I hate myself for this too)
a form of aerial combat between fighter aircraft at short range; first appeared in WWI
huge and needed multiple people to mann them. they would overheat very often. were thought of as immoral by the Germans (ok, boomer)
Leaders at the Paris Peace Conference
ultimately, George Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Woodrow Wilson-the representative leaders of France, Great Britain, and the United States-dominated the deliberations. the allies did not permit representatives of the central powers to participate, and the Soviet Union was not invited to the conference
((the Paris peace conference resulted in additional treaties with Bulgaria, Austria, Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire))
Germany's fear of encirclement by France and Russia encouraged its military planners to devise a strategy that would avoid a war on two fronts. The Schlieffen plan called for a swift knockout of France, followed by defensive action against Russia. German planners predicated their strategy on the knowledge that the Russians could not mobilize their soldiers and military supplies as quickly as the French, thus giving German forces a few precious weeks during which they could concentrate their full power on France, However, Germany's military strategy was a serious obstacle to those seeking to preserve the peace, In the event of Russian mobilization, Germany's leaders would feel compelled to stick to their war plans by attacking France first, thereby setting in motion a military conflict of major proportions.
on 18 January 1915 the Japanese presented the Chinese government with 21 demands. the terms of that ultimatum, if accepted, would have reduced china to a protectorate of Japan. Chinese diplomats leaked the note to the British authorities, who spoke up for china, thus preventing total capitulation. the 21 demands reflected japan's determination to dominate east Asia and served as the basis for future Japanese pressure on china.
Treaty of Brest-Litvosk
the bolshevik rulers then ended Russia's involvement in the Great War by signing the treaty of Brest-litvosk with Germany on 3 March 1918, the treaty gave the germans possession or control of one-third of Russia's territory (the baltic states, the caucasus, Finland, Poland, and the Ukraine) and one-quarter of its population. although the terms of the treaty were harsh and humiliating, taking Russia out of the war gave the new government an opportunity to deal with internal problems. Russia's departure from the war also meant that Germany could concentrate all its resources on the western front.
(Russia) The inability of police forces to suppress the uprisings, and the subsequent mutiny of troops garrisoned in the capital, persuaded Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate the throne.
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