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CJ 273 Exam 2
Terms in this set (152)
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
looking glass self
the process of becoming viewed as somehow socially unacceptable or disgraced
_____________ is the idea that when powerful entities place a label on someone, the person on the receiving end of the label is likely to internalize them
labeling theory is predicated on the idea of a _______________
what are some things that contribute to power/make someone a powerholder?
money, position, status, race, gender, age 5
____________ states that the government can take any property used in the commission of a crime
civil asset forfeiture
does labeling theory have empirical validity?
what does labeling theory beleive leads to crime?
what is the label in labeling theory?
formal criminal record
______________ is when someone internalizes the criminal label
symbolic interactionism is also called _______________
looking glass self
is there empirical validity to social interactionism?
what are the two types of deviance according to labeling theory?
primary and secondary
_____________ are criminal acts that precede the criminal label
the primary deviance crimes tend to be ____________
minor in nature and infrequent
why is thought that crimes of primary deviance are infrequent and minor?
you have not been labeled as a criminal yet
what is another name for secondary deviance?
societal reaction prospective
_______________ are criminal acts that come after the formal criminal record
are crimes more or less frequent during secondary deviance?
who does the societal reaction prospective think is responsible for crime?
when was labeling theory developed?
has labeling theory ever been tested empirically?
is there validity to primary and secondary deviance?
why might primary and secondary deviance not be valid?
most people don't have a criminal record before committing violent crimes
do people always internalize the label?
does labeling theory support the idea of deterrence?
what are the policy manifestation of labeling theory?
drug courts, scared straight programs, boot camp, deinstitutionalization, ban the box, radical non-intervention
drug courts and scared straight programs are two types of ___________ program
do scared straight programs have lasting effects?
why do scared straight programs not scare kids anymore?
kids know what will happen to them
why are scared straight programs still used if we know they don't work?
it looks good and makes us feel good
are the effects of boot camp long lasting?
______________ is when a criminal label is removed as an attempt to prevent secondary deviance
what is a problem with expungment?
it is expensive so poor people do not have access to this program
expungment tends to be for __________ offenses
______________ states that if you apply for a government job you shouldn't have to report your criminal record
ban the box
__________________ was a policy that stated we should just let minor offenses that don't involve violence go
____________ is socially disapproving of people in order to produce remorse
_____________ is when we shame someone in an attempt to stop them from ever committing a crime again
the sex offender registry is a form of ________________ shaming
____________ started the sex offender registry
can people pay to get off the sex offender list?
____________________ is a form of shaming that reintegrates criminals into society
restorative justice is a form of _____________ shaming
social disorganization theory is the best example of a _______________ theory
what does social disorganziation theory believe leads to crime?
structural problems in society
a _________________ is large aggregate of people that live together
_________________ communities have no consensus on norms and values
_______________ communities lead to crime
is it empirically valid that socially disorganized communities will have more crime?
when were chicago studies conducted?
who conducted the chicago studies?
Shawn and Mckay
what were the Chicago studies focused on?
juvenile deliquency in Chicago
A city grows outward from a central are in a series of concentric rings.
the ________________ was the concentric area with the highest rate of crime
zone of transition
why do immigrants move to large cities?
work, affordable housing, better transportation,
______________ states that when areas have broken windows, that attracts crime to those areas
broken windows theory
_____________ is the first theory to negate that race and ethnicity are what cause crime
what does social disorganization theory believe causes people to commit crimes?
where people live
is social disorganization theory macro/ structural or micro/processural?
in social disorganization theory, who had the highest crime rates?
those who occupied the zone of transition
what are some policy implications of social disorganization theory?
social welfare programs, police segregation, standard of living laws, public housing
has public housing been shown to work?
what was the main problem with pruitt-igoe?
it relied on tenants to pay for maintenance cost
Why was bussing implemented?
it was thought that by bussing kids to nicer schools their outcomes could change
what is a criticism of bussing?
instruction may have to slow down to meet their needs
who coined the term anomie?
What did Durkheim define strain as?
a state of normlessness in which people are not sure about how they should behave
How did Durkheim think strain tied to suicide? +
those who experience anomie are more likely to commit suicide
_____________ is a sense of normlessness
what did merton define anomie as?
disconnect between valued cultural ends and the legitimate means to achieve them
anomie is _________ likely to lead to crime
what is a valued cultural end?
what is valued in society
education, money, buying a house, and starting a family are all examples of __________
valued cultural ends
Why does merton think strain occurs?
american cultural emphasis on success and belief the american dream is available to everyone
a capititalist society is based on _______
___________ is pressure to attain goals through either legitimate or illegitimate means
True/False: all americans live under conditions of strain
_____________ leads to modes of adaptation
what are the five modes of adaptation?
conformity, ritualism, innovation, retreatism, rebellion
____________ is a form of adaptation in which you do what you can within the boundaries of the law
__________ is the most common response to strain
____________ is a form of adaptation in which someone pursues conventional goals through deviant means
_____________ is the most deviant response to strain
what kind of crime do innovators focus on?
_______________ is a form of adaptation that involves total rejection of the system marked by an overthrow of the government
the black panther party illustrates this form of adaptation
______________ is an escapist response to strain
alcohol and drug use are examples of this form of adaptation
________________ is when you succeed to a certain degree and then fall into a ritual to avoid losing what you have
__________________ developed middle class measuring rod theory
what did cohen define strain as?
an inability to gain status and acceptance in society
_______________ is defined as meeting conventional goals and standards
societal standards are _____________ class standards
cohens theory is a theory of ______________
who tends to dictate norms according to Cohen?
the middle class
________________ is when we put forth an effort knowing the outcome will be beneficial
how is everyone exposed to middle class values?
why do those who are not of a middle class experience problems when they move into school?
they are taught the opposite of middle class values
status deprivation leads to ____________ which leads to ____________
status frustration, reaction formation
_______________ is when kids do the opposite of the middle class norms to gain status in their own subgroup
____________________ is when you break rules because you can't achieve status
how did cohen suggest people learn expectations?
they are socialized into them
victim offender meetings are a policy manifestation of?
what kind of theory is middle class measuring rod theory?
what is a policy implication of middle class measuring rod theory?
strain theories are predicated on _____________
legitimate blocked opportunities
who developed the idea of differential and deliquent subcultures?
cloward and Ohlon
did cloward and ohlon believe everyone had the same criminal opportunities?
__________________ is a person in society who is good at committing crime who recruits and trains individuals into criminal enterprise
organized criminal role model
how is status gained in the criminal subculture?
what does deviance stem around in the conflict subculture?
what is valued in the conflict subculture?
ability to fight
how is status gained in the conflict culture?
this subculture is referred to as double failures
in this subculture status is gained through intoxication
what was Miller's theory focused on?
focal concerns of the lower class
what are the five focal concerns of the lower class?
trouble,smartness,excitement,fatalism, and autonomy
____________ is breaking the rules and laws to gain status
___________ is the ability to con someone into handing over their money
____________ is risk seeking and thrill seeking
________________ is when you think your life is predestined
____________ is independence and freedom
what is a policy implication of focal concerns of the lower class?
censorship of music
true/false: Miller's theory beleives there is a different culture for the lower class
What was the name of the theory JFK proposed?
What was the goal of the new frontier theory?
make sure everyone is progressing and has opportunities
Who started the war on poverty?
What did Agnew define strain as?
What are the three deviant producing types of strain according to Agnew?
failure to achieve possibly valued goals,removal of positively valued stimuli, and confrontation with a negative stimuli
conflict theory is a theory of ____________
power and powerholders
who are the powerholders according to conflict theory?
law makers and law enforcers
who controls law enforcers?
powerful people make laws that are ____________
in their own interest
why would conflict theory suggest that we went to war in Iraq?
money for the rich
conflict theory is predicated on _____________
______________ created conflict theory
why are laws created in conflict theory?
to serve powerful people
who suggested the idea of normalizing view?
iris marion young
what does normalizing view suggest we should view as normal?
the view of the powerful people
who developed consensus theory?
when did consensus theory end?
laws function to serve ____________ according to consensus theory
______________ states that there are multiple competing powerful groups that are trying to get their prospective made into law
pluralistic conflict theory
what are the three factors that affect crime legislation and policy?
myth about crime/crime rates, crime rates/fear of crime, immediate events
True/ False: as crime rates increase, more punitive measures are put into place and as crime rates decrease, the punishment also decreases
false the punishment stays the same
________________ are the events that happen in real time that trigger legislation
someone who is paid to influence policymakers
Factors that influence criminal justice discretion but are not legally relevant such as demographic characteristics
race,age, attitude and gender are examples of _______________ variables
true/false: extralegal variable influence how law is made and inforced
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