Plant Toxins - Muscle & Bone: part 1

Paralyzing Curares is for which 3 families
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in the Menispermaceae family ______________ plant produces tubocurarine toxinChondrodendron tomentosumtubocurarine Classification:Curare alkaloidTubocurarine causesrespiratory paralysisHow does Tubocurarine work ?Antagonist (hinders) nicotinic receptorsTubocurarine Effective route:blood/parenteralSpecies: strychnos is found in which family?Loganiaceaestrychnos Makes what toxin(s)?Strychnine, toxiferinStrychnine route of administration isOral or parenteral (blood)Strychnine causesuncontrolled muscle contractionHow does strychine exert it's action byInhibiting glycine & GABA receptorHow do glycine and gaba normally function?slowing us down, inhibitory neurotransmittersStrychnine stops GABA/Glycine, whichprevents the the normal inhibitory effects and causes uncontrolled muscle contractionGlycine How does it work?It makes Cl- enter the already negative cell (ligand-gated Cl- channels) causing hyperpolarizationHyperpolarization: If it's too polarized, the neuron willnot fire, which is perfect for when you need to end a signalerythrina species is found in which family?Fabaceaeerythrina Toxin is:ErysodineErysodine toxin's Route:oralErysodine classificationParalytic, antagonizes (boosts) AChRed seeds have this toxic alkaloid it iserysodine toxinSolanaceae contains which 2 toxins:nicotine and anabasinenicotine scientific nameNicotiana tobacum:Sometimes insects store __________ as a defense mechanismnicotinenicotine binds tonicotinic ACh receptorsHemlocks is found in which family?Apiaceae (parsley family)How to identify hemlock:purple spotted stems, mouse peeHemlocks make powerfulmuscle relaxantsHemlocks cause muscle relaxation byantagonizing the nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor), which leads to respiratory paralysis and eventually deathhemlock Toxin is:coniineCytisine toxin is found in which family?FabaceaeCytisine Acts likenicotineTubocurarine was used asan anesthetic in surgeryBotox decreasesACh, which is great for reducing wrinkles (less muscle contraction)Papaya is good for treating aherniated disk as an alternative to surgeryPapaya Containschymopapainchymopapain has a protease whichdigests the proteins that help to cause the herniated diska type of fungi contains_______________ which is a POTENT anti inflammatorycyclosporinecyclosporine is useful formyastheniamyasthenia is muscle weakness or drooping caused byyour own immune system (autoimmune antibodies) attacking ACh receptors which inhibits depolarization/contractionUrtica Dioica is theStinging nettleUrtica Dioica Eating these leaves + diclofenac (a drug) reducesinflammationHow do we know that consuming nettles + diclofenac (a drug) can aid in reducing inflammation?We know this bc we saw a decrease in biomarkers for inflammationAnabolic plants are found in which 3 families?poaceae, malvaceae, cucurbitaceae,Avena sativa is in which family?PoaceaeAvena sativa is considered ____________ plantanabolicHibiscus rosa -sinensis is in which family?- MalvaceaeHibiscus rosa -sinensis is considered ____________ plantanabolicMomordica charantia is in which family?- CucurbitaceaeMomordica charantia is considered ___________ plantanabolicPuncture vine (tribulus terrestris) may*** produceathletic gainsPuncture vine (tribulus terrestris) is considered a ____________ plantanabolicBrassinosteroids, increaseIGF-1 which indicates muscle gain