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Physiology Ch. 23: Endocrine Growth and Metabolism
Terms in this set (39)
what are basic components of endocrine pathways?
hormone receptors, feedback loops, cellular responses
what does the adrenal cortex secrete?
glucocorticoids, sex steroids, aldosterone
what controls cortisol secretion?
hypothalamic CRH and ACTH from the pituitary (cortisol is the feedback signal)
characteristics of cortisol
catabolic; essential for life; promotes gluconeogenesis, breakdown of skeletal muscle proteins and adipose tissue, Ca2+ excretion, and suppression of the immune system; influences brain function
what does hypercortisolism usually result from?
tumor or therapeutic administration of the hormone
what are thyroid hormones made of?
tyrosine and iodine
what is tetraiodothyronine?
what is triiodothyronine?
is T3 or T4 more active?
what happens to T4 in target tissues?
it is converted to T3
are thyroid hormones essential for life?
what is the basic function of thyroid hormones?
influence metabolic rate, as well as protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism
what controls thyroid hormone secretion?
thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
what does normal growth require?
growth hormone, thyroid hormones, insulin, sex hormones at puberty, adequate diet and absence of stress
what secretes growth hormone?
what does growth hormone stimulate secretion of?
insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) from the liver and other tissues
what do IGFs promote?
bone and soft tissue growth
what controls secretion of growth hormone?
growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and growth hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin)
what is bone composed of?
hydroxyapatite crystals attached to a collagenous support
what type of tissue is bone?
dynamic tissue with living cells
what do osteoblasts do?
where does long bone growth occur?
what produces cartilage? and where?
chondrocytes at epiphyseal plates
what does calcium act as?
intracellular signal for second messenger pathways, and muscle contraction; also plays a role in cell junctions, coagulation, and neural function
what does Ca2+ homeostasis balance?
dietary intake, urinary output, distribution of Ca2+ among bone and cells
what does decreased plasma Ca2+ stimulate?
parathyroid hromone (PTH) secretion by parathyroid glands
what is Addison's disease?
an autoimmune disease; hyposecretion of all adrenal steroids
what is Cushing's disease?
hypercortisolism (moon face), some symptoms mimic diabetes mellitus and results from ADH excess
what is Grave's disease?
hyperthyroidism, involves endocrine stimulation by antibodies (where there is no connection between the anterior pituitary and the thyroid)
what is Paget's disease associated with?
what is an appropriate treatment for Paget's disease?
what is myxedemea?
puffy appearance associated with hypothyroidism
what is Goiter?
enlargement in neck, caused by elevation of TSH (hyperthyroidism)
what is Acromegaly caused by?
GH excess in adulthood
what is Gigantism caused by?
GH excess prior to puberty
what does Adrenogenital syndrome result from?
excess androgen in females
what is Cretinism?
mental retardation associated with infantile hypothyroidism
what is dwarfism caused by?
GH hormones deficiency in childhood
what is kyphosis?
hunchback appearance associated with osteoporosis
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