Romanticism, Religion, and Reform/Manifest Destiny (Ardoin AP)
Terms in this set (70)
short horror stories
Edgar Allen Poe
the belief that if one gets back to nature and gives up material possessions one can transcend this world
"Essay on History" urged Americans to abandon the attachment to European forms and to create a distinctively American literature that would reflect a distinctively American culture.
Walden (he puts Emerson's words into practice, Thoreau's experience with nature), Essay on Self Reliance (passive resistance)
were a product of the romantic writers, especially the transcendentalists
president of Yale university, he wants to get rid of Deists; starts the Second Great Awakening
instant conversion experience and starts the Second Great Awakening
Charles G. Finney
one of the founders of the Mormon Church and created the Mormon book; was a strong believer in polygamy; eventually shot for his beliefs
Joseph Smith Jr.
one of the founders of the Mormon Church; led the Mormons to Utah after persecution for practicing polygamy, which is later removed from Utah when others move there to make Utah a state
One of the new religions from the Second Great Awakening; believed that the proper Sabbath was on Saturday, not Sunday
Church of 7th Day Adventists
this is a religion created by Joseph Smith Jr and Brigham Young; strong believers in polygamy
people turn from the belief of predestination to the belief in free will again which is the belief that one can choose his/her own fate
the belief that Jesus will return when we create the perfect society; this is what starts all of the reform movements
wanted to improve school systems because he saw the cycle that poverty followed and believed that free public schools were the answer; this did not work because there was no mandatory school attendance and no child labor laws so no one in poverty would send their children to school
the American Temperance Union tried to put a stop against the 'evils' of alcohol. This movement was not successful before the Civil War because there were discrepancies over which types of alcohol got people drunk, and the Union was never able to get organized
who was the leader of the temperance movement?
Lyman Ward Beecher
she is responsible for asylum reforms during the Romanticism Era; she visits a jail with these mentally unstable patients with no food and clothes, and she fights for reform. As a result, state-supported insane asylums were created
she writes, "Treatise on Domestic Economy" that explains that women and the domestic realm are just as important as the public and political realms that men are a part of
her husband was part of the world anti-slavery convention, and she traveled with him but had to sit in the balcony during the meetings. Her and others joined together in support of women's rights and established the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. She wrote and gave the speech entitled Declaration of Sentiments that fought for women's rights; she was also an abolitionist
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
was another abolitionist who fought alongside Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the Seneca Falls Convention in support of women's rights. The two met when they joined their husbands at the World Anti-slavery Convention, and they were forced to sit in the balcony. The two bonded over their belief in more women's rights
this is where Elizabeth Cady Stanton gives her Declaration of Sentiments speech. The people in attendance were invited to sign the document; this is where the ideas of women's rights began to change, although some women were scared of such a radical change
Seneca Falls Convention
the document written and delivered by Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the Seneca Falls Convention that questioned why these women could not vote on the laws they were made to follow. It also highly stresses the inability of women to vote
Declaration of Sentiments
led the "back to Africa" campaign. They purchased Liberia. The experiment did not work because the slaves were not used to the land in Africa
American Colonization Society
radical leader of the Abolitionist Movement and editor of The Liberator
William Lloyd Garrison
runaway slave and editor of The North Star. He was an example of the fact that slaves could be educated
two Georgia sisters who lived on a plantation. They were disowned by their family for supporting abolition. Also supported women's suffrage
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Freed slave woman who wrote "Ain't I a Woman" and supported women's suffrage
What are the different characteristics of the Romantic writers?
They focused on emotion, whether good or bad emotion. They created a truly American literature.
What are the characteristics of the Transcendentalists?
Focus on nature, abandoning material possessions.
What is the cause and effect of the Second Great Awakening?
Causes: the need for religion on the frontier (New York "burned over" district)
Effects: 1.Rise of New Religions: Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists 2. Free will over predestination 3. Increased belief in postmillennialism- this will lead to all of the reform movements.
What rights did women NOT have during this time period?
Women did not have the right to vote. They also did not have the right to initiate a divorce. Also, when a man and woman got married, all the property belonged to the husband. A woman did not have the ability to own property in a marriage at this time. She also did not have access to her children in cases of divorce.
What motivated Stanton and Mott to hold a convention?
Stanton and Mott decided to hold a convention because, when they were sitting at the antislavery convention, they realized that both of them were fighting for a group of people to be free when they themselves weren't free. As a result, many women in the Abolitionist Movement will support women's suffrage.
What was the most radical thing that these women asked for?
the right to vote
War hero from War of 1812, he was a Whig and he won the election of 1840, first president to die while in office
William Henry Harrison
Harrison's vice president and he took over for Harrison when he died. Added Texas to the US
Americans were interested in _______ because there was fertile soil, they believed that the Indians wanted to be Christianized, and because of the Economic Panic of 1837
Part of Mexico; they didn't mind Americans in Mexico as long as they 1) practiced Catholicism 2) obeyed Mexican laws and customs 3) didn't have slaves
first led a group of Americans into Texas in 1841
Stephen F. Austin
Dictator of Mexico in 1835, abolished most of the colonists rights
Mexican soldiers stormed the Alamo (old mission located in San Antonio)in 1835, it was a small battle between the Mexican army and the Texans, Santa Anna executed all of the survivors; the significance is that it angered many Americans to go to Texas and capture Santa Anna
The commander at the alamo
William B. Travis
unlawfully declared the independence of Texas; led 900 men to capture Santa Anna in April of 1836
Presidential candidate in 1844; known as "Mr. Manifest Destiny" because he promised to annex Texas and take Oregon by force if necessary; Declared war on Mexico in May of 1846
James K. Polk
Settles the dispute of the Oregon territory between the United States and Britain
Caused by President James Polk's desire for Mexico; began in 1846 and lasted until 1848
American General whose men overcame the surprising attack by the Mexican army in Buena Vista; becomes known as "the Hero of Buena Vista" . Later becomes president but dies from cholera
Americans were sent to "disputed territory" to sit and wait for the Mexican army to open fire on them, which they eventually do; however, it was on disputed territory rather than on American soil; Polk declares that blood was shed on "American soil" and when he brought it to congress to get permission to declare war, Congressman Abraham Lincoln asks him to show him where they were fired upon
Sent by President James Polk to Mexico City as a minister in 1845; he intended to offer Mexico $25 million for California and territory to the East, but Mexican officials sent him away before he was able to make the offer
in charge of southern Mexico, which would include the attack on Mexico City
Mexico agreed to give the U.S. all claims to Texas, New Mexico, and California which was roughly 40% of Mexico's territory which is known as the "Mexican Cession." The US also agreed to pay Mexico 15 million dollars and promised to respect the civil, religious, and property rights of the Mexicans living in the territory
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
A provision or amendment that stated that slavery should never exist in any of the Mexican Cession territories that would be taken from Mexico
a party committed against the extension of slavery in the territories and one that also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers. This party appealed to people angry over acquisition of Oregon, people who didn't like blacks in the new territory, as well as "conscience Whigs" who condemned slavery on moral grounds
The choice of the people; idea proposed by Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois who proposed building a transcontinental railroad and the idea of popular sovereignty. Eventually established the Kansas Nebraska Act which repeal the Missouri Compromise
Stephen A. Douglas
The owner of the sawmill that the gold that initiated the Gold Rush was found
California would enter as a free state, popular sovereignty would remain in the rest of the Mexican Cession territory, no more slave trading in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave law- If a northerner is caught hiding a slave or have knowledge of a runaway slave, they would serve jail time
Compromise of 1850
How or why did the Whigs develop as a party?
Starts under the Jackson administration, supported Clay's American system, didn't like immigrants
What is significant about Tyler taking office?
It was the first time in American history that a vice president took over as a result of the death of the president
What is Manifest Destiny?
Belief that the US was to expand and that it was what God wanted them to do
Why did Americans feel that is was their "duty" to expand to the West?
They believed it was the divine mission of the US
Why were Americans interested in Oregon?
They had heard from missionaries they there was fertile soil, they believed that the Indians wanted to be Christianized, and because of the Economic Panic of 1837 (Jackson closed the bank which caused an economic panic)
Why did Americans come into conflict with the Mexicans in Texas?
President James Polk desired to acquire the Mexican-owned land of Texas
Why didn't the U.S. immediately annex Texas?
Texas was a part of Mexico, and Andrew Jackson did not want to risk initiating a war with Mexico
What were the arguments for and against the annexation of Texas?
Against: they did not want to risk a war with Mexico; For: manifest destiny was all about expansion. Also, if the U.S. doesn't do it someone else will.
What was the theme for the election of 1844?
James K. Polk promised the annex of Texas, with his campaign slogan as "54 50º or fight"
What was the difficulty in fighting a war with Mexico?
American soldiers faced issues such as a low number of troops, epidemics and disease, rugged territory, and the fact that they were fighting the civilian population
What were the effects of the war with Mexico?
The US acquired 500,000 square miles of territory, but this territory would eventually lead to the civil war because of the dispute over slave versus free states. The rest of the world's opinion of the American Armed Forces rose dramatically
How did Latin America view the U.S. after the war?
Post war, American Relations with Latin America declined. There was never a time when the US and Latin American relations were good.
How was the slavery issue addressed?
Popular Sovereignty- the people of Kansas would vote on whether to be a slave or free state
What is the overall long-range effect of the Compromise of 1850?
The compromise enables the North to win the Civil War because the North grows and the South does not