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43 terms

Unit 10 & 11- Thinking and Intelligence

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cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
prototypes
a mental image of the best example of a category
-matching new items with old. this proves quick and easy method for including items in a category
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone use or heuristics
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
insight
a sudden realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for info. that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or math, particuluar prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
overconfidence
the tendency to be a more confident than correct-to over estimate the accuracy of ones beliefs and judgements
framing
the way an issue is posed; this can significantly affect decisions and judgement
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, ,sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief perseverance
clinging to one's intitial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
intelligence
metal quantity consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situation
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
general intelligence
underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measure by every task on an intelligence test
-by Spearman
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental capability has an exception specific skill
emotional intelligence
the ablitiy to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions
creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
-by Stanford
Alfred Binet
person that said children develop at differenet speeds
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
Louis Terman
person that modified Binets test and made IQ test
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient (IQ)
ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
acheivement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
host widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
normal curve
the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of hpysical and psychological attributues. most scores fall near the average and fewer and fewer near the extremes
mental retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 10 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
down syndrome
a condition of retardation and associated phsycial disorders caused by an extra chromosome in ones genetic makeup
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what its supposed to
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
criterion
the behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining wether the test has predictive validity
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
triarchic theory
theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment
flynn effect
The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations