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a mental image of the best example of a category
-matching new items with old. this proves quick and easy method for including items in a category
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone use or heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or math, particuluar prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
the tendency to be a more confident than correct-to over estimate the accuracy of ones beliefs and judgements
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, ,sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
clinging to one's intitial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
metal quantity consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situation
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measure by every task on an intelligence test
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental capability has an exception specific skill
a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
host widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance
the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of hpysical and psychological attributues. most scores fall near the average and fewer and fewer near the extremes
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 10 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
a condition of retardation and associated phsycial disorders caused by an extra chromosome in ones genetic makeup
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
the behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining wether the test has predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment
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