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Chapter 4: Food Safety
Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation
Terms in this set (104)
Defined by the CDC as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food.
An illness transmitted to humans by food.
Which is probably the safest food supply in the world and why?
The U.S. food supply; because it controls contamination at the food source through programs such as the CDC and FDA.
How does the CDC play a role in food safety?
It tracks down causal factors when even as few as one or two outbreaks of foodborne illness occur.
What does the FDA do for food safety?
It maintains a public website with updates on recent outbreaks.
What are some preventative measures for foodborne illnesses?
CDC, FDA, Controlling contamination at the source, and food manufacturers and distributors are motivated to avoid law-suits brought against them as a result of negligence.
Where do approximately 80% of foodborne illnesses originate?
According to the General Accounting Office, what is the total number of people afflicted with foodborne illnesses per year?
76 million ill-nesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and up to 5,000 deaths.
Why is control and prevention of restaurant related contamination inconsistent?
many of the laws and regulations governing food safety in America have not been updated since they were written in the time of Teddy Roosevelt . . ." and the FDA has the staffing capability to inspect "just 7,000 of our 150,000 food process-ing plants and warehouses each year.
Aims to keep the food supply free from planned contamination with biological, chemical, or physical hazards due to malicious and/or criminal intent.
Symptoms of foodborne illnesses
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract lining (gastroenteritis), nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.
What fraction of all reported diarrhea cases in the United States have been linked to foodborne illnesses?
Does the severity of diarrhea or any of the other symptoms associated with foodborne illnesses vary? Why?
Symptoms vary depending on the type of causative agent, the amount of the agent consumed, and the age and the susceptibility of the immune system of the affected individual.
Who are the most seriously affected by foodborne illnesses?
The very young, the old, and those with immune systems compromised by diseases such as AIDS or cancer.
Mild cases of foodborne illnesses usually:
subside with time.
Dehydration resulting from diarrhea and vomiting can be treated by the consumption of:
Severe cases of foodborne illnesses may result in:
hospitalization or even death.
What are the three types of food hazards?
Living organisms or organic material that includes bacteria, molds, viruses, and parasites.
Substances that can harm living systems. These range from agricultural and industrial contaminants (including cleaners and sanitizers) to plant and animal toxins.
Foreign material such as glass, metal, stones, and wood that could cause harm if ingested. Other common substances following these top four include jewelry, insects, insulation, bone, and plastic.
What happens to most biological hazards?
inactivated or killed by adequate cooking and/or their numbers are kept to a minimum by sufficient cooling.
Number one cause of foodborne illnesses
Three types of foodborne illnesses caused by pathogenic bacteria:
2. intoxication or poisoning
3. toxin-mediated infections
One-celled microorganisms abundant in the air, soil, water, and/or organic matter (i.e., the bodies of plants and animals).
Causing or capable of causing disease
-An illness resulting from ingestion of food containing large numbers of living bacteria or other microorganisms.
-Caused by ingesting bacteria that grow in the host's intestine, replicate, and create an infection through their colonization.
What percentage of bacterial foodborne illnesses are due to food infections?
-An illness resulting from ingestion of food containing a toxin.
-Bacteria grow on the food and release toxins that cause illness in the person consuming the toxin-laden food or beverage.
Occurs when bacteria enter the intestinal tract and then start to produce the toxin in the intestine.
Main bacteria that cause food infections via colonization in the intestinal tract?
-one of the most common causes of illnesses traced to contaminated foods and water
-foods most susceptible include: meat,fish,poultry,eggs, and dairy products
-heat-sensitive bacteria, but it could become heat resistant in low-water activity conditions such as in the production of peanut products.
-Yet another source of contamination is pet turtles, iguanas, and other reptiles.
-causes the second most costly foodborne illness, after Salmonella.
-fatality rates are as high as 20 to 35 percent of those infected.
-The CDC records about 500 U.S. deaths annually
-may also cause pneumonia, septicemia, urethritis, meningitis, and spontaneous abortion
Which bacteria is considered unique and why?
Listeria monocytogenes; because it is a facultative bacterium (capable of growing with or without oxygen); it can survive in a wide pH range (from 4.8 to 9.0); and it grows in a wide temperature range (39°F to 113°F/4°C to 45°C).
What is the principle source of Listeria in ready-to-eat foods?
recontamination from the processing environment
What are foods associated with Listeria outbreaks?
Frozen dairy desserts, contaminated cabbage, pasteurized milk, luncheon meats, and Mexican style soft cheese.
-destroyed by heat, but, like Listeria, can grow in a wide temperature range (32°F to 106°F/0°C to 41°C).
-its ability to grow in refrigerator temperatures makes it all the more hazardous.
-commonly occurs in children, resulting in gastrointestinal upset, fever, and appendicitis-like symptoms.
-can occasionally also cause septicemia (bacteria in the blood), meningitis (inflammation of the spinal cord or brain membranes), and arthritis-like symptoms.
The number one cause is poor personal hygiene by food handlers
is carried in the intestinal tract and transferred to the hands of food service personnel who visit the restroom and do not wash their hands
occur when a food that contains a toxin produced by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Clostridium botulinum is consumed
-major cause of foodborne illness
-Up to half of all healthy humans carry it, and it is a common cause of sinus infections and infected pimples and boils.
-It lives in the throat and nasal passages and in small cuts, so it is easily transmitted to foods through sneezing, coughing, and hand contact.
-one of the deadliest, but fortunately rarest, forms of foodborne illness
-Less than half a cup of this bacteria's toxin is enough to poison every person on earth.
-The most common cause of is improperly home-canned food or damaged cans.
Toxin-Mediated Infections Bacteria
-normal inhabitant of the digestive tract in both humans and animals
-in its normal environment, it prevents the growth of more dangerous bacteria.
-can produce serious illness when it contaminates food sources
Who is E.coli particularly dangerous in?
hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
-A potentially deadly condition caused by E. coli
-Leading cause of acute renal (kidney) failure in children
-caused by E.coli
-most common in children
-severe abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and a short-lived fever followed by watery, bloody diarrhea
Sources of E.coli
unpasteurized apple juice or cider
dry cured salami
Where are children particularly exposed to E.coli?
child-care centers because of poor hand washing after diaper changing.
-The number of people infected with this bacteria now equals or exceeds those affected by Salmonella.
-responsible for more than 14 percent of the estimated annual food-related illnesses and deaths attributed to foodborne pathogens.
-the largest foodborne disease outbreak was traced to a municipal water supply
-most other cases are linked to raw meat, undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and untreated water.
-Seafood is the major carrier
most common cause of foodborne illness in Japan
responsible for thousands of deaths each year in Asia
A fungus (a plant that lacks chlorophyll) that produces a furry growth on organic matter.
-A toxin produced by a mold
- Over 300 have been identified
-a carcinogenic toxin made by the mold Aspergillus lavus, is the most potent liver carcinogen known.
-foods infected with this toxin are most likely to be peanuts and grains
a toxin produced by both Aspergillus and Penicillium that can contaminate fruits and cereals
Associated with corn
-Cottony, fuzzy growth of molds.
-This differentiates mold from bacteria
Foods susceptible to molds
jam and jellies
salty meats (bacon, ham & salami)
How can mildew (mold) on refrigerator be cleaned?
with a solution of 1 tablespoon of baking soda dissolved in 1 quart of water
-An infectious microorganism consisting of RNA or DNA that reproduces only in living cells.
-needs a living cell in order to multiply.
Two of the most common viruses known to cause foodborne illnesses
hepatitis A virus and the Norwalk virus
Hepatitis A virus
-occurs most frequently after food is contaminated with fecal matter.
-differs from the hepatitis B virus, which is transmitted through body fluids and not through food
-commonly referred to as the "stomach flu"
-second most common viral infection after the common cold.
An organism that lives on or within another organism at the host's expense without any useful return.
Examples of parasites
roundworms and protozoa
-most common parasite found in food
-a roundworm found in pork
-there are now relatively few cases of trichinosis each year
Note: a roundworm is a parasite
-internal temperature of 137°F (58°C) will kill the T. spiralis larvae
-but the National Livestock and Meat Board recommends a final internal temperature of 160°F (71°C) as a safety margin.
Herring worms and Codworms
-tiny white worms found in fish(sushi)
-In serious cases, the worm penetrates through the stomach or intestinal wall, causing severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
-After several weeks, the worm dies, or it may be coughed or vomited up by the host. It also may be removed by a physician using a fiberoptic device equipped with mechanical forceps.
-animals consisting of just one cell. They most frequently infect humans through contaminated water. Only 3 out of about 30 types are related to food safety: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Cyclospora. The most common of these is Giardia.
-a type of protozoa
-responsible for the most common parasitic infection in the world
-most frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water
-primarily transmitted through surface streams and lakes that have been contaminated with the feces of infected livestock and other animals.
Child care centers are common sources of infection for:
Giardia lamblia (a protozoa)
Hepatitis A (a virus)
-An infectious protein particle that does not contain DNA or RNA
-Related to mad cow disease or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
-It is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that riddles the brain with holes, making it look like a sponge.
Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs)
Programs implemented by the CDC as a result of outbreaks resulting from new microorganisms.
-Any chemical substance hazardous to health
-Harmful chemicals can come from additives (unintentional), plant toxins, animal toxins, or certain metals
A chemical toxin that was intentionally added to pet foods in China in order to artificially increase their protein content.
-a chemical that in high dosages can cause cancer in laboratory animals, but has unknown effect in humans. -is not naturally found in food, but is formed by a chemical reaction when certain foods such as french fries are exposed to high temperatures.
-The reaction requires sugar, the amino acid asparagine, and high heat.
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
-most common toxin-related food poisoning in the United States
-caused by eating fish, usually from tropical waters, that contain a ciguatoxin that is not destroyed by heating
Histamine Food Poisoning
-Excessive accumulation in fish (especially tuna) may result in this kind of food poisoning (scombrotoxism).
-One of the most common forms of fish poisoning in the United States and occurs when the fish have not been chilled immediately after being caught.
Bacteria that produces histamine in fish that have not been refrigerated, thus making them toxic.
-One of the most violent poisonings originating from seafood
-Occurs when the liver, gonads, intestines, and/or skin of the pufferfish are consumed.
-Toxin present in putterfish
- If ingested results in a mortality rate of 50%
-the result of the rapid growth of a reddish marine alga, usually occur- ring during the summer or in tropical waters.
-Shellfish, such as mollusks, oysters, and clams, and certain fish that consume red tide algae become poisonous and should not be eaten until the red tide has disappeared.
The transfer of bacteria or other microorganisms from one food to another.
-an immune response to a specific protein within a food.
-different than food intolerance, which does not involve an immune response, but rather an inability to absorb or process a certain food due to an enzyme deficiency.
Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA)
Requires food manufacturers to appropriately label any product that contains a potential allergen.
Top 8 Food Allergens
Why are meat, poultry, and egg products not subject to FALCPA rules?
Because they are under the regulation of the USDA
-hazards that can harm the consumer's health when found in food and beverages
What are some examples of physical hazards?
glass, bone, metal (especially from opening cans), wood, stones, false fingernails, toothpicks, watches, jewelry, insects, staples from food boxes, and many other foreign items
Top three factors associated with foodborne illness
poor personal hygiene, cross-contamination, and time/ temperature control
-Foods that support the growth of bacteria because they contain a lot of protein and water
-Other factors making foods more prone toward bacterial contamination are low acid content and suficient oxygen, although exceptions exist.
Examples of high risk foods
High water activity
USDA= 40°F (4°C) or below for consumers
FDA= 41°F (5°C) or below for
Dry Storage Temperature
Dry storage: 60-70°F(15-21°C)
• 50-70°F (10-21°C) root
vegetables (potatoes, onions) and whole citrus, eggplant, and squash (hard-rind)
Temperature Danger Zone
The temperature range—considered to be 40°F-140°F (4°C-60°C) by the USDA for consumers, and 41°F- 135°F (5°C-57°C) according to the FDA Food Code for retailers—that is ideal for bacterial growth
Resistant to drying and heating, and the bacteria may remain in this dormant state for long periods until their environment becomes more hospitable.
Steps of food preparation
pre-preparation, cooking, holding, cooling, reheating, and serving
4 acceptable methods for thawning
Submerged under water
Part of the cooking process
Microwave (cook right after)
Three compartment sink
A sink divided into three sections, the #rst for soaking and washing, the second for rinsing, and the third for sanitizing.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System, a systematized, step by step approach to preventing foodborne illness during the production and preparation
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