Midterm Two

Intertidal zone factors
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CO2 increases the pH of the ocean. More H+ increases and some corals are made of calcium carbonate which is made of calcium and carbonate ions. carbonate ions usually pair with calcium to form calcium carbonate instead form with H+ ions to form bicarbonate (HCO3-). This means corals have trouble increasing their skeleton.
Why is chlorophyll a rather ineffecient pigment in absorbing light at moderate depths (50m and deeper)?it only has a range of where red light and violet light.what pigment is found in all microalgaechlorophyll awhat are cyanobacteriaprokaryotesWhat is the most diverse macroalgaerhodophytein Seattle, when would you expect an anoxic episode in surface waterSpring at nightwhen would there be the lowest pH in seawaterupwellingwhat does subduction domelts lithosphere back into the earths asthenosphere. creates sites of volcanic and seismic activity.An example of an area with high species richness and productivity despite being oligotrophicis _______________, while an example of an area with low species richness, high biomass andnutrient rich is _______?coral reef, hydrothermal ventThe disphotic zone is the transition between photic and aphotic zones. Which of the following statements about the disphotic zone is TRUE?light is so low and doesn't allow for photosynthesis, It is enough to stimulate photoreceptors in some speciesWhat is TRUE about accessory pigments in marine macrophytes:They extend the range of wavelengths that can drive photosynthesisUpwellings and temperature/pHupwellings usually decrease water temperature and pH while concentrations of inorganic nutrients and dissolved carbon increase. this favors kelp forestsMangroves vs kelp forestskelp forests grow in cold waters while mangroves are in warm tropical waters. mangroves have vascular system but kelp do not.corals in eutrophic environmentsthis would be bad because then they would provide their own nutrients and wouldn't need zooxanthellae which would lead to coral bleaching.pH increase and algaeAllelopathy: the chemical inhibition of one organism by another due to the release into the environment of substances that can stress or kill In this case, algae blocks the light from coral and releases substances that could be affecting coral More macroalgae means less fish which means more macroalgae and so on with a positive feedback loopwhat is false about mangrovesthey provide kelp forests with nutrients to grow.What do mangroves doanimal nurseries, biochemical filters, provide an important energy source for the detritus based food webs. They DO NOT mainly influence the health of rivers and freshwater lakes.Where are kelp forestscool relatively shallow waters close to the shoreCO2 dissolved in seawater`CO2 + H2O -><- H2CO3 (carbonic acid) -><- H+ +HCO3- (bicarbonate ion) -><- H+ + CO32- (carbonate ion)Fill in the blanks with the best option below: I am a _______. I spend only part of my life freely in the water column and am referred to as a_______.zooplankton, meroplanktonPlankton propertiesHave limited power of locomotion and generally drift with the current (i.e. cannot swim against the current)The photic zone, or euphotic zone, is the uppermost layer of water that is exposed to intense sunlight. Generally, it extends form the water surface to about...200 metersWhat is true about vertical migrationlower water temperatures at deeper depths reduce an animal metabolic rate and its energy requirements. it enables animals to minimize the risk of predation during the day. It enables animals to capitalize on the more abundant food resources of the photic zonewhat is false about vertical migrationThey are always triggered by changes in light intensity - under constant light, animals stop migratingOxygen minimum zoneOMZ typically occurs at depths between 200 and 1,500 meters In OMZ, dissolved oxygen is consumed by bacteria and animal. OMZ are the places in the world ocean where oxygen saturation in the water column is at its lowest. it is not in the photic zone.Epipelagic zones characteristicsThe first 200 meters of the ocean. has highest rate of oxygen consumption.Mesopelagic zonefrom the bottom of epipelagic zone down to 1,000m. rely totally on the flux of particles from above.neurotic zone and open oceanThe open ocean is oligotrophic, the neritic zone is eutrophic. A lot of chlorophyll means we should have enough light. In the open ocean. You want to fish in the neritic zone because the open ocean does not have as much condensed nutrients and primary production. neritic zone is the one closer to the shore.SA/V of phytoplankton from neurotic to oceanic.greater from the neritic to the open ocean because there is less nutrients in the open ocean.Primary production and biomassmore primary production means more biomass.Why are mangroves important for coral reefsWhy are mangroves important for coral reefs? The roots of the mangrove retain sediment which helps to not block the sunlight and helps to make the environment not eutrophic. Eutrophic is bad because it causes an algal bloom which can block sunlight from the coral. Mangroves act as a nursery for the fish.What makes the oxygen minimum zoneUpwelling leads to phytoplankton bloom, leads to them dying, composers eat them which uses oxygen so there is an oxygen minimum. There is more oxygen lower after this zone because of the thermohaline circulation.why isn't oxygen minimum not shallowerit is colder down at the bottom so they use less oxygen. most organic matter is consumed in the first 200 meters so under the minimum there is not a lot of matterIn the deep ocean, the oxygen minimum zone occurs in which zone?mesopelagicHow do organisms deal with desiccationmove to water, find cover, be able to dry out and rehydrate.Which of the following is NOT an adaptation to deal with desiccation?be smallAs wave energy increases, which of the following DOES NOT increase.diversity of species. sediment grain size does, slope of beach does, and dessication does.Which three characteristics would be most beneficial for organisms inhabiting the epipelagiczone?a. Schooling behavior, large body size, and ability to do diel migrationsWhat happens with increasing sediment grain size and water retention, surface temperature, desiccation, intertidal rangewater retention decreases. surface temperature increases, increases, intertidal range doesn't changewhere is the most biomass in ocean and whythe most biomass is found in the epipelagic zone, largely due to large amounts of plankton.what is true about coralsa. In coral reefs, primary production is coupled with efficient utilization and regeneration oforganic and inorganic nutrients, which allows an unusually high productivity in a nutrient poorenvironmentb. Upwelled nutrients can increase primary production, including phytoplankton concentrationswhich, in turn, may decrease light availability to reef building coralsWhy is the ocean losing oxygenchanges in fish metabolism increases as water gets warmer. bacterioplankton respiration also increases with water temperature. as oxygen increases, metabolism increases so OMZ would get shallower and thicker. Seals go down lower to find animals because there was not enough oxygen for them to move so they are easier to catch due to their low metabolism.Which of the following strategies are used by epipelagic organisms to stay within an optimal zone?Accumulate oil in liver and muscles to reduce densityBlue whales are the largest animal in the world and require a lot of energy to survive. Think about how animals spend energy. Which of these life processes might be compromised when food is limitingGrowth and reproductionThe fate of organisms in low pH watersorganisms in low pH means less carbonate and more bicarbonate, so organisms will dissolveeating in optimal zonein the mesopelagic zone, animals need nutrients from marine snow which is living/dead phytoplankton cells, abundant bacteria, exoskeletons shed by crustaceans, other detrital material or fecal pellets.connection of mesopelagic and epipelagicmesopelagic animals migrate upward to feed in near surface waters. at dusk, the animals ascend to photic zone and feed throughout the night. before daybreak, they migrate deeper to the darker waters to hide. this is diurnal or vertical migration.how can animals stay alive in an optimal zone in mesopelagic/epipelagicbuoyancy: they have stored fats and oils which are less dense than water. pneumetaphores: maintain positive buoyancy by secreting gases into a float. gas is used for buoyancy, use a swim bladder.Which organism could benefit from ocean acidificationcoastal diatomsMarine shellfish species with planktonic larvae may be negatively impacted by ocean acidification. Those that have evolved in habitats with _______ pHand feed on phytoplankton may thrive as phytoplankton abundance may________ with ocean acidification.low, increaseSolubility of gas in oceangreater solubility of gas in low temperatures.how does CO2 combine with waterocean absorbs a lot of CO2 because it doesn't remain as a gas. much of CO2 combines with water to produce a weak acid (H2CO3). this is carbonic acid. This carbonic acid dissociates to form H+ ions and HCO3- (bicarbonate ion), or it can form into two H+ ions and a carbonate ion (CO32-).carbonic acid bicarbonate carbonate systemcarbonic acid bicarbonate carbonate system functions to buffer or limit changes in seawater pH. if excess hydrogen ions are present, the reactions described shows reactions described proceed to the left and excess hydrogen ions are removed. otherwise, the solutions would be more acidic. if too few hydrogen. ions are present, more are made available by the conversion of carbonic acid to bicarbonate and bicarbonate to carbonate. (reaction shifting to the right).Anthropogenic sources of CO2forestry, agriculture, industry, residential, transport, energy supply (most), waste and water waste.How does adult exposure to OA affect larvaelower survival, smaller, slow growing.When CO2 enters seawater, it combines with water for form _________ but quickly _________ into HCO3- and _________, which ________ seawater pHH2CO3 (carbonic acid), dissociates, H+, reducesWhat regional factors can exacerbate acidification caused by global CO2 emissions?coastal upwellings.what organisms would benefit from OAseagrass. not mussels, corals, or calcifying photosynthetic bacteria. things that really need c02 would do wella pH of 7 is how much more acidic than 810 times more acidicPolar food chainsrelatively short in length. the base of the ARCTIC food chain consists of phytoplankton and euphausiids like krillArctic ocean bathymetryshallow continental shelves. continental shelves re most productive due to sun availability.arctic river inputarctic river receives greater than 11% of global river which delivers heat, freshwater, and sediment.Antarctica bathymetrysurrounded by the southern ocean which freezes in the winter, doubling the size of Antarctica.sea ice formationinitiated by cooling of the ocean surface by winds, as water freezes, it expels salt which then sinks. the displaced water is replaced by warmer waters from the equator driving deep water formation. formation of sea ice is concentrated over shelves.seasonal changes in arctic wateras ice melts in the spring, low salinity forms a low density layer near the sea surface. this increases vertical stability which encourages phytoplankton to grow near the sunlit surface. this also releases ice algae to initiate the bloom.polar food chainsshort food chains supporting productive seasonal migrating ice edge diatoms, krill, birds, seals, fish, and whales.blooms in arcticMelting of sea ice triggers spring bloom of phytoplankton, initiating primary production at the poles - bloom cycles are responsible for short trophic connectionssea ice algaefoundation of polar food web. Sea ice provides a platform for algae to grow Primary production rates of ice algae are low in comparison to that of phytoplankton Ice algae provide the only food source when the oceans are ice-covered Living under thick ice and in low light conditions requires special adaptations: • More efficient photosynthesis• More chlorophyll• Ability to consume bacteria when light is not availablePrimary. producers and zooplankton in polar regionsPrimary producers: diatoms and phytoplankton. Zooplankton in arctic are copepods, and antarctic are euphasiids (krill)secondary consumers in arctic and antarcticarctic: bowler whale, birds, antarctic is penguins, seals...The sea ice and snow keeps the poles cold and covered. The ability of snow and ice to reflect the Sun's energy is called the:albedo effectpolar sea ecosystems food chainshort food chains with many speciesWhat is TRUE about marine homeotherms in Polar ecosystems?They can survive to long fasting periods, and perform long migrations to lower-latitude watertransfer of oxygen from epipelagic to the deep seaOxygen transfer: diffusion and sinking of cold, dense water masses are the chief mechanisms of 02 transport into the deep ocean with diffusion providing 02 from the surface downward and sinking water masses filling the deeper ocean basins with water rich in 02.n as it diffuses down dissolved 02 os slowly diminished by animals and bacteria leaving an omz. Below this, dissolved 02 increases to just above the sea bottom because as bacteria that use up large amounts of the sea bottom as the bacteria that use up large amounts of 02 in the shallower waters are not present in high numbers below the omz.Nutrients in the bottom of oceanCovered with fine sediment, skeleton and debris. This comes from minerals that precipitate from their dissolved state in seawater to produce irregular sediments like manganese. Oozes: sediment from deep ocean basins from skeletal remains of planktonic organisms.n they accumulate slowly. Food comes from above. Seasonal variation in the organic content of surface sediments. Sediment sinks and gets eaten and digested as it goes down, losing its nutritional value the lower it sinks.Deep life physiologyPressure is high so studies suggest that pressure induced reductions in metabolic rates may lead to decreased growth rates, lowered reproductive rates, and increased life spans.Deep ocean characteristicstemperature is low, pressure is high, oxygen but not a lot. oxygen is not a limiting factor. no light basically and no photosynthesis.reproduction in deep seaThere is high biodiversity but low biomass, so finding a mate is generally a limitation. To compensate for the absence of a dependable external food source some species produce fewer and larger eggs. Larvae are hatched at fairly advanced stages of development. Asexual reproduction is an evolutionary advantageadaptations to living in deep oceanintrospective communication to find mates, ability to produce and see red lights, slow metabolism to deal with minimal food availability.Which of the following is an important supply of food to inhabitants of the deep-sea floor?Chitinous exoskeletons shed by planktonic crustaceans. not diatom silica frustules or mollusk derived calcium carbonate.is there primary productivity in the deep oeanyeswhat is false about marine snownutritive value of the marine snow increases thewater column, which allows to fuel most life in abyssal plains as it travels down theAbyssal plainsvast soft mud habitats. extended over hundreds or thousands of miles. sparsely populated by animal communities. high biodiversity, low biomassHydrothermal ventssmall localized rocky habitats. axes of ridges. highly populated by animal communities. low biodiversity, high biomass.When transitioning from a hydrothermal vent ecosystem to an abyssal plain. pH:increasesWhen transitioning from a hydrothermal vent ecosystem to an abyssal plain. Oxygen availability:increasesWhen transitioning from a hydrothermal vent ecosystem to an abyssal plain. H2SO4:decreasesWhen transitioning from a hydrothermal vent ecosystem to an abyssal plain. Hydrostatic pressure:does not changeWhen transitioning from a hydrothermal vent ecosystem to an abyssal plain. Primary productivity:decreaseshydrothermal vent chemistryThey respond to vent water chemistry. Use dissolved 02 from surrounding water to oxidize H2S back to S042- and get energy. The equation for bacteria making their own food is C02 +H20 +H2S +O2 → (CH2O) +H2SO4energy for hydrothermal ventsUse oxygen to oxidize hydrogen sulfide, which is converted to sulfate ion. For vents, energy source is the heated hydrogen sulfide oxidation (H2S) and O2, inorganic carbon is the source of carbon, and this makes sulfiric acid.This happens through chemosynthesis. oxygen is brought through thermohaline circulationCold seep chemistryCold Seep: CO2 + CH4 + SO42- ---> HCO3- + HS- +H20 (+CH2O). Energy in cold seeps: the oxidation of cold seeps.. Microbials consumes sulfate and methanol in a 1:1 ratio producing sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon.True or false: Hydrothermal vent and cold seep communities have similar sets of dominant species: tube worms, clams, mussels and arthropods, although they range taxonomically.TrueChemoreceptiontaste and smell (olfaction). with the detection its olfactory sensory cells of chemicals dissolved in water is highly evolved in fish.Electroreception and magnetoreceptiontiny pores or pits in snouts or pectoral fins sense electro and magneto reception. these pits connect a short jelly filled canal to a flask shaped ampullae of lorenzini. connected to lateral line.Visionlight is focused by a round lends through a light tight eye to the retina which is the light sensitive receptor. fish eyes adjust by moving the lends closer or farther. Cones: high intensity and color. Rods: low intensity receptors. for fish with one type of cone, vision is limited to detecting variation in light, seeing shades not colors.equilibriumorienting. use sensory hair cell with labyrinth organ on each side of the head. consists of three semicircular canals that have gravity detectors surrounded by neuromasts. these are filled with fluid.sound receptiondetect sound using sensory hair. they have neuromasts in them. these are communicated to lateral line through pores. lateral line detects disturbances in water. Otiliths: sand stones in the labyrinth and constitute the inner ear. two or three otoliths suspended in fluid where they contact neuromasts. sound waves move the fish and denser otoliths lag behind bending the neuromast stimulating nerve pulse.most common color range of bioluminescenceblueAt the poles, a process takes place as sea ice forms that is associated with ocean circulation. This process is:the expelling of nutrients from the freezing waterIn Seattle when would. you expect an oxygen depletion episode in the surface watersspring at night