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Synovial Joint Components

Fibrous joint capsule, synovail membrane, joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage

3 type of bone cells

osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes


bone forming cells


large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood


mature bone cells

Process of Bone repair

Hematoma formation, procallus formation, callus formation, callus replacement, remodeling

Bone remodeling function

repairs microscopic injuries and maintains bone integrity

Bone remodeling process

Activation phase, resporption phase, formation phase

Structure of long bone


Cartilagenous Joint

Slightly moveable. Composed of 2 types: symphysis and synchondrosis


Type of cartilagenouse joint in which bones are joined by hyaline cartilage

Fibrous Joints

An articulation in which the bones are joined together by dense fibrous connective tissue, lack a joint cavity, and almost no motion is possible. Types are sutures, syndemoses, and gomphoses. (Most are synarthrotic joints.)

Sliding Filament Theory

Ca binds to troponin, actin slides toward myosin, myosin attaches to actin, atp released when cross bridges attached

Steps in muscle contration

Activation, coupling, contraction, relaxation

Disuse Atrophy

Reduction in the normal size of the muscle cells due to prolonged inactivity. Rate of loss is 3%/day


age-related progressive loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function


Staphyloccal infection that can happen from an open wound (exogenous) or from a blood bone infection (endogenous)


Porous bone. Bone is normally mineralized but mass is decreased. There are 2 types.

toxic myopathy

Acute attack of muscle weakness, pain, and swelling. Chronic weakness in a drinker of long duration.Necrosis of individual muscle fibers

inflammatory joint disease

Inflammatory damage, destruction of synovial membrane or articular cartilage. 2 types infectious or non infectious

rheumatoid arthritis

Systemmic inflammatory autoimmune disease that involves swelling and pain in multiple joints. Involves anitbodie IgA and IgM against other antibodies

ankylosing spondylitis

Inflammatory joint disease of the spine and SI joint causing stiffining and fusion on the joints. Primary site is enthesis. Assosiation with HLA-B27 Antigen

Type 1 Osteoporosis

Primary type that includes senile or post menopausal

Type 2 Osteoporosis

Type that is casued by etiologies including disease or drugs

Potential causes of osteoporosis

Decreased levels of testosterone or estrogen, decreased activity level, inadequate levels of vitamins C,D, Mg


site where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsule are inserted into the bone


the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)

Glial Cells

Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oigodendrocytes, schwann cells, satellite cells


Attache to brain cappillaries and forms a barrier between the blood and neurons. Regulates nutrient and waste transport to and from neurons.


Act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system. Cleanser of ECF


Produce mylein sheath around axons in CNS

Satellite Cells

Produce myelin sheath around axons in PNS

Phase 1 of Bone remodeling

Activation, osteocyte apoptosis activated,

Phase 2 of Bone Remodeling

Osteoclasts form cutting cone that reabsorbs bone. Leaves behind resorption cavity

Phase 3 of Bone Remodeling

Osteoblast lay down new bone and create a new haversian cell system

Hematoma Formation in Bone Repain

1st step. Fibrin and platelets form meshwork. Hematopoetic growth factors

Procallus Formation in bone repair

Fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts create. Catillage formed

callus Formation in Bone repair

Formed by Osteoblasts. Enzymes increase phosphate content allowing phosphate to bind to Ca and then hardens

Callus Replacement Bone repair

Osteoblasts replace with lamellar bone or trabecular bone

Remodeling Bone repair

Periosteal and endosteal surfaces are remodeled

Autonomic Hyper-reflexia

Massive, uncompensated cardivascular response to a stimulation of SNS. can occur after a spinal shock. Create paroxysmal hypertension= 300mmHg

oblique fracture

Fracture in which the fracture line slants across the bone

Occult Fracture

fracture that cannot be detected by xray until several weeks after the injury. Individual may experience pain and swelling as result of injury, most likely to occur in the ribs, tibia, metatarsals or navicular bones (small bones in hand/foot).

Open fracture

compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound

Pathologic fracture

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

Spiral fracture

ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone

Transverse fracture

complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone

Greenstick Fracture

partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other

Impacted Fracture

fracture in which one broken end is wedged into the other broken end

Dissuse atrophy

Redution in the normal size of muscle cells due to prolonged inactivity


Age related skeletal muscle loss. Direct cause of age related decrease in muscle strength

Sympathetic Nervous System

a branch of the autonomic nervous system and prepares the body for quick action in emergencies; "fight or flight"

Autonomic Nervous System

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

Ascending pathway

sensory pathways. go "up" to the brain. Include

Descending Pathways

Deliver efferent impulses from brain to spinal cord and are divided into direct and indirect pathways

Efferent Signal

carry impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands. Motor

Afferent Signal

carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS. Sensory

Upper Motor Unit

are motor neurons that originate in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or the brain stem and carry motor information down to the final common pathway, that is, any motor neurons that are not directly responsible for stimulating the target muscle

Sensory Receptors

detect changes in the environment and stimulate neurons to send nerve impulses to the brain

Multiple Sclerosis

Progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating, autoimmune disorder of the CNS. Degeneration of the myelin sheath in CNS neurons. Mixed, Spinal and cerebellar types


infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection


Acquired inflammatory disease causing demyelination of the peripheral nerves with relative sparing of axons Acute onset, ascending motor paralysis


Enlargement of lateral and third ventricles; widening of frontal cortical fissures and sulci. Brain dopamine and glutamate pathways altered
Includes positve (hallucinations and delusions) and negative (symptoms are catatonic state, social withdrawl) symptoms

Lower Motor neurons

are the motor neurons connecting the brainstem and spinal cord to muscle fibers, bringing the nerve impulses from the upper motor neurons out to the muscles.

McArdle disease

Defective phosphorylase → ↑ increased glycogen in muscle → painful muscle cramps during strenuous exercise

Acid maltase deficiency

Pompe disease (Type II glycogen storage disease)

Diseases of Energy Metabolism

Mc Ardle Disease, Pompe Disease, MDD, Lipid deficiencies

White muscle (type II fibers)

Inervated by large alpha motor neuron
Fast twitch - very quick movement

Red muscle (type I fibers)

More for endurance
More efficient at energy use


cylinderical structures encircled by branches of T tubules; , contractile elements of skeletal muscle


Stem cells that fuse to form skeletal muscle during embryonic development, with the result that the mature cells are long cylinders with multiple nuclei.


the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines

Innervation Ratio

Motor units per muscle. The greater the innervation ratio of a particular organ, the greater its endurance.Higher innervation ratios prevent fatigue. Lower innervation ratios allow for precision of movement

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