Create an account
Synovial Joint Components
Fibrous joint capsule, synovail membrane, joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood
Process of Bone repair
Hematoma formation, procallus formation, callus formation, callus replacement, remodeling
An articulation in which the bones are joined together by dense fibrous connective tissue, lack a joint cavity, and almost no motion is possible. Types are sutures, syndemoses, and gomphoses. (Most are synarthrotic joints.)
Sliding Filament Theory
Ca binds to troponin, actin slides toward myosin, myosin attaches to actin, atp released when cross bridges attached
Reduction in the normal size of the muscle cells due to prolonged inactivity. Rate of loss is 3%/day
Staphyloccal infection that can happen from an open wound (exogenous) or from a blood bone infection (endogenous)
Acute attack of muscle weakness, pain, and swelling. Chronic weakness in a drinker of long duration.Necrosis of individual muscle fibers
inflammatory joint disease
Inflammatory damage, destruction of synovial membrane or articular cartilage. 2 types infectious or non infectious
Systemmic inflammatory autoimmune disease that involves swelling and pain in multiple joints. Involves anitbodie IgA and IgM against other antibodies
Inflammatory joint disease of the spine and SI joint causing stiffining and fusion on the joints. Primary site is enthesis. Assosiation with HLA-B27 Antigen
Potential causes of osteoporosis
Decreased levels of testosterone or estrogen, decreased activity level, inadequate levels of vitamins C,D, Mg
the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
Attache to brain cappillaries and forms a barrier between the blood and neurons. Regulates nutrient and waste transport to and from neurons.
Act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system. Cleanser of ECF
Phase 2 of Bone Remodeling
Osteoclasts form cutting cone that reabsorbs bone. Leaves behind resorption cavity
Hematoma Formation in Bone Repain
1st step. Fibrin and platelets form meshwork. Hematopoetic growth factors
Procallus Formation in bone repair
Fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts create. Catillage formed
callus Formation in Bone repair
Formed by Osteoblasts. Enzymes increase phosphate content allowing phosphate to bind to Ca and then hardens
Massive, uncompensated cardivascular response to a stimulation of SNS. can occur after a spinal shock. Create paroxysmal hypertension= 300mmHg
fracture that cannot be detected by xray until several weeks after the injury. Individual may experience pain and swelling as result of injury, most likely to occur in the ribs, tibia, metatarsals or navicular bones (small bones in hand/foot).
complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
Age related skeletal muscle loss. Direct cause of age related decrease in muscle strength
Sympathetic Nervous System
a branch of the autonomic nervous system and prepares the body for quick action in emergencies; "fight or flight"
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Deliver efferent impulses from brain to spinal cord and are divided into direct and indirect pathways
Upper Motor Unit
are motor neurons that originate in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or the brain stem and carry motor information down to the final common pathway, that is, any motor neurons that are not directly responsible for stimulating the target muscle
detect changes in the environment and stimulate neurons to send nerve impulses to the brain
Progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating, autoimmune disorder of the CNS. Degeneration of the myelin sheath in CNS neurons. Mixed, Spinal and cerebellar types
infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection
Acquired inflammatory disease causing demyelination of the peripheral nerves with relative sparing of axons Acute onset, ascending motor paralysis
Enlargement of lateral and third ventricles; widening of frontal cortical fissures and sulci. Brain dopamine and glutamate pathways altered
Includes positve (hallucinations and delusions) and negative (symptoms are catatonic state, social withdrawl) symptoms
Lower Motor neurons
are the motor neurons connecting the brainstem and spinal cord to muscle fibers, bringing the nerve impulses from the upper motor neurons out to the muscles.
Defective phosphorylase → ↑ increased glycogen in muscle → painful muscle cramps during strenuous exercise
White muscle (type II fibers)
Inervated by large alpha motor neuron
Fast twitch - very quick movement
cylinderical structures encircled by branches of T tubules; , contractile elements of skeletal muscle
Stem cells that fuse to form skeletal muscle during embryonic development, with the result that the mature cells are long cylinders with multiple nuclei.
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together