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73 terms

Test #2

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Synovial Joint Components
Fibrous joint capsule, synovail membrane, joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage
3 type of bone cells
osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
Osteoblasts
bone forming cells
Osteoclasts
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Process of Bone repair
Hematoma formation, procallus formation, callus formation, callus replacement, remodeling
Bone remodeling function
repairs microscopic injuries and maintains bone integrity
Bone remodeling process
Activation phase, resporption phase, formation phase
Structure of long bone
...
Cartilagenous Joint
Slightly moveable. Composed of 2 types: symphysis and synchondrosis
Synchondrosis
Type of cartilagenouse joint in which bones are joined by hyaline cartilage
Fibrous Joints
An articulation in which the bones are joined together by dense fibrous connective tissue, lack a joint cavity, and almost no motion is possible. Types are sutures, syndemoses, and gomphoses. (Most are synarthrotic joints.)
Sliding Filament Theory
Ca binds to troponin, actin slides toward myosin, myosin attaches to actin, atp released when cross bridges attached
Steps in muscle contration
Activation, coupling, contraction, relaxation
Disuse Atrophy
Reduction in the normal size of the muscle cells due to prolonged inactivity. Rate of loss is 3%/day
Sarcopenia
age-related progressive loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function
Osteomyelitis
Staphyloccal infection that can happen from an open wound (exogenous) or from a blood bone infection (endogenous)
osteoporosis
Porous bone. Bone is normally mineralized but mass is decreased. There are 2 types.
toxic myopathy
Acute attack of muscle weakness, pain, and swelling. Chronic weakness in a drinker of long duration.Necrosis of individual muscle fibers
inflammatory joint disease
Inflammatory damage, destruction of synovial membrane or articular cartilage. 2 types infectious or non infectious
rheumatoid arthritis
Systemmic inflammatory autoimmune disease that involves swelling and pain in multiple joints. Involves anitbodie IgA and IgM against other antibodies
ankylosing spondylitis
Inflammatory joint disease of the spine and SI joint causing stiffining and fusion on the joints. Primary site is enthesis. Assosiation with HLA-B27 Antigen
Type 1 Osteoporosis
Primary type that includes senile or post menopausal
Type 2 Osteoporosis
Type that is casued by etiologies including disease or drugs
Potential causes of osteoporosis
Decreased levels of testosterone or estrogen, decreased activity level, inadequate levels of vitamins C,D, Mg
Enthesis
site where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsule are inserted into the bone
Necrosis
the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
Glial Cells
Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oigodendrocytes, schwann cells, satellite cells
Astrocytes
Attache to brain cappillaries and forms a barrier between the blood and neurons. Regulates nutrient and waste transport to and from neurons.
Microglia
Act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system. Cleanser of ECF
Oiligodendrocytes
Produce mylein sheath around axons in CNS
Satellite Cells
Produce myelin sheath around axons in PNS
Phase 1 of Bone remodeling
Activation, osteocyte apoptosis activated,
Phase 2 of Bone Remodeling
Osteoclasts form cutting cone that reabsorbs bone. Leaves behind resorption cavity
Phase 3 of Bone Remodeling
Osteoblast lay down new bone and create a new haversian cell system
Hematoma Formation in Bone Repain
1st step. Fibrin and platelets form meshwork. Hematopoetic growth factors
Procallus Formation in bone repair
Fibroblasts, capillary buds, and osteoblasts create. Catillage formed
callus Formation in Bone repair
Formed by Osteoblasts. Enzymes increase phosphate content allowing phosphate to bind to Ca and then hardens
Callus Replacement Bone repair
Osteoblasts replace with lamellar bone or trabecular bone
Remodeling Bone repair
Periosteal and endosteal surfaces are remodeled
Autonomic Hyper-reflexia
Massive, uncompensated cardivascular response to a stimulation of SNS. can occur after a spinal shock. Create paroxysmal hypertension= 300mmHg
oblique fracture
Fracture in which the fracture line slants across the bone
Occult Fracture
fracture that cannot be detected by xray until several weeks after the injury. Individual may experience pain and swelling as result of injury, most likely to occur in the ribs, tibia, metatarsals or navicular bones (small bones in hand/foot).
Open fracture
compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
Pathologic fracture
occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain
Spiral fracture
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
Transverse fracture
complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
Impacted Fracture
fracture in which one broken end is wedged into the other broken end
Dissuse atrophy
Redution in the normal size of muscle cells due to prolonged inactivity
Sarcopenia
Age related skeletal muscle loss. Direct cause of age related decrease in muscle strength
Sympathetic Nervous System
a branch of the autonomic nervous system and prepares the body for quick action in emergencies; "fight or flight"
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Ascending pathway
sensory pathways. go "up" to the brain. Include
Descending Pathways
Deliver efferent impulses from brain to spinal cord and are divided into direct and indirect pathways
Efferent Signal
carry impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands. Motor
Afferent Signal
carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS. Sensory
Upper Motor Unit
are motor neurons that originate in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or the brain stem and carry motor information down to the final common pathway, that is, any motor neurons that are not directly responsible for stimulating the target muscle
Sensory Receptors
detect changes in the environment and stimulate neurons to send nerve impulses to the brain
Multiple Sclerosis
Progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating, autoimmune disorder of the CNS. Degeneration of the myelin sheath in CNS neurons. Mixed, Spinal and cerebellar types
Meningitis
infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection
Guillain-Barré
Acquired inflammatory disease causing demyelination of the peripheral nerves with relative sparing of axons Acute onset, ascending motor paralysis
Schozophrenia
Enlargement of lateral and third ventricles; widening of frontal cortical fissures and sulci. Brain dopamine and glutamate pathways altered
Includes positve (hallucinations and delusions) and negative (symptoms are catatonic state, social withdrawl) symptoms
Lower Motor neurons
are the motor neurons connecting the brainstem and spinal cord to muscle fibers, bringing the nerve impulses from the upper motor neurons out to the muscles.
McArdle disease
Defective phosphorylase → ↑ increased glycogen in muscle → painful muscle cramps during strenuous exercise
Acid maltase deficiency
Pompe disease (Type II glycogen storage disease)
Diseases of Energy Metabolism
Mc Ardle Disease, Pompe Disease, MDD, Lipid deficiencies
White muscle (type II fibers)
Inervated by large alpha motor neuron
Fast twitch - very quick movement
Red muscle (type I fibers)
More for endurance
More efficient at energy use
Myofibrils
cylinderical structures encircled by branches of T tubules; , contractile elements of skeletal muscle
Myoblasts
Stem cells that fuse to form skeletal muscle during embryonic development, with the result that the mature cells are long cylinders with multiple nuclei.
Sarcomere
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines
Innervation Ratio
Motor units per muscle. The greater the innervation ratio of a particular organ, the greater its endurance.Higher innervation ratios prevent fatigue. Lower innervation ratios allow for precision of movement