Chapter 3 Review
Terms in this set (48)
Cinchona bark, purple foxglove plant, poppy plant (opium)
Magnesium, zinc, gold
Pancreas of cow, stomach of cow, thyroid gland of animals
Meperidine, diphenoxylate, co-trimoxazole
Hepatitis B vaccine, insulin, and growth hormone
Drugs that are distributed throughout the body have ___ effects.
Drugs whose action is limited to a specific location have ___ effects.
As drugs pass through the body, they undergo four processes:
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion
Passage of a substance through a membrane into the bloodstream
Moving from the bloodstream into the tissues and fluids of the body
Physical and chemical alterations that a substance undergoes in the body
Eliminating waste products of drug metabolism from the body
What is the primary site of the Absorption process?
Mucosa of the stomach, mouth, small intestine, or rectum; blood vessels in the muscles or subcutaneous tissues; or dermal layers
What is the primary site of the Distribution process?
Circulatory system, through capillaries and across cell membranes
What is the primary site of the Metabolism process?
What is the primary site of the Excretion process?
Kidneys, sweat glands, lungs, or intestines
If circulation is poor, metabolism faulty, or excretion inadequate, drugs may build up in the system, leading to ___ effects, causing poisonous, or ___ levels of the drug.
Variables affecting the efficiency of drug action include ___, ___, ___, and ___.
age, weight, gender, and psychological state
Drugs working together for a better effect
Drugs working against each other or counteracting each other's effect
One drug making the effect of another drug more powerful
Amount of drug that can cause death
Amount of drug that can cause dangerous side effects
Amount of drug required to keep drug level steady
Unusual response to a drug, other than expected effect
Decreased response after repeated use of a drug, increased dosage required for effect
Acquired need for a drug, with symptoms of withdrawal when discontinued
Effects on a fetus from maternal use of a drug
An allergy or immune response to a drug is called ___.
Allergic reactions to drugs may be mild, with symptoms such as ___.
rash or hives may appear after three to four days of drug therapy
Allergic reactions to drugs are more common in patients with ___.
other known allergies.
Severe allergic reaction with shock, laryngeal edema, and dyspnea is called ___.
Treatment of severe analphylactic reactions can include the following: ___, ___, and ___.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if indicated and drugs as required; epinephrine (Adrenalin) and fluids to raise blood pressure, corticosteroid (Solu-Medrol) to reduce inflammation and the body's immunological response, antihistamine (Benadryl) to suppress histamine, thereby reducing redness, itching, and edema
Sources of drugs:
plant, mineral, animal, synthetic, and DNA
Plants: Trade Name
Quinidine, digitalis, morphine, codeine
Antiarrhthymic, cardiotonic, analgesic, antitussive
Minerals: Trade Name
Milk of magnesia, zinc oxide ointment, auranofin
Antacid, laxative, sunscreen, skin protectant, anti-inflammatory; used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Animals: Trade Name
Insulin; regular, NPH, PZI, pepsin, thyroid, USP
Antidiabetic hormone, digestive hormone, hormone
Synthetic: Trade Name
Demerol, lomotil, bactrim, septra
Anagesic, antidiarrheal, anti-infective sulfonamide; used in treatment of uninary tract infections (UTI) and some other infections
DNA: Trade Name
Vaccine, hormone and hormone respactively
What conditions might hamper the Absorption process?
Incorrect administration may destroy the drug before it reaches the bloodstream or its site of action (e.g., giving certain antibiotics after meals instead of on an empty stomach).
What conditions might hamper the Distribution process?
Poor circulation (impaired flow of blood) may prevent drug from reaching tissues.
What conditions might hamper the Metabolism process?
Hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver, or a damaged liver may prevent adequate breakdown of drug, thus causing a build-up of unmetabolized drug.
What conditions might hamper the Excretion process?
Renal damage or kidney failure may prevent passage of drug waste products, thereby causing an accumulation of the drug in the body.