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what is Aversive conditioning?
-it refers to the process of learning how to cope with aversive events
-some aversive events can be escaped and others can be avoided all together
-ex) escape- a mugger by fighting back. escape a scary movie by covering your eyes
-ex) avoid- being attacked all together by not walking home alone late at night. avoid a scary movie by not going.
what are the 3 factors that play an important role in determining whether a person or animal learns to escape and aversive event?
1. The intensity of the aversive event affects escape conditioning
-Generally speaking, the more aversive the event, the faster the escape response is learned.
2. The amount of negative reinforcement influences the acquisition of an escape response.
-Generally, the greater the decrease in severity of the aversive event, the faster the acquisition of the escape response.
3. The delay of reinforcement affects the development of an escape response.
-The longer the delay in the termination of the aversive event, the slower the acquisition of the escape response.
what is escape conditioning?
animals can escape an aversive event by making some kind of response after the aversive stimulus is presented.
what happens in avoidance learning?
an aversive event is not presented if the animal makes some criterion response within a specified period of time.
what are the 6 Avoidance behavior tasks?
1. One-Way Avoidance Task
2. Jump-Up Avoidance task
3. Two Way Avoidance Task
4. Signaled Bar Press Avoidance
5. Unsignaled Avoidance- Sidman Avoidance Task
6. Passive avoidance procedure
explain One-Way Avoidance Task
animal must cross from one compartment in which shock is delivered to another (one-way) in which shock is never administered.
explain Jump-Up Avoidance task
-subject must leap or jump up from one compartment in which shock is always given to another compartment above it so avoid shock
-The more intense the shock, the more rapidly animals learn
The more different the compartments are, the faster animals learn
explain Two -Way Avoidance task
- there is a warning stimulus: signals impending shock
-If the rat crosses over to the other compartment during the warning stimulus, he will avoid the shock.
-If he crosses over after the warning stimulus terminates (i.e., during shock), he can still escape the shock by crossing to the other compartment.
explain Signaled Bar Press Avoidance
rats must learn that making a barpress on some defined schedule, will result in avoidance of shock.
explain Unsignaled Avoidance- Sidman Avoidance Task
-In the unsignaled procedure the only cue that the animal has as to when shock will occur is the passage of time.
Explain Passive avoidance procedure
-the animal has to refrain from moving to avoid shock.
what are some Theoretical Consideration about avoidance learning?
-Versus Cognitive Views
Two-Factor Theory of Avoidance Learning (Mowrer
what s the Two-Factor Theory of Avoidance Learning (Mowrer
-it says the Avoidance Learning - operation of two factors.
what is Factor 1 in the two factor theory of avoidance learning?
-Pavlovian conditioning of fear to the Warning signal presented in the avoidance apparatus.
WS= conditioned stimulus
shock = unconditioned stimulus
The pairing of the two over time, results in learning the CR= fear
what is Factor 2 in the two factor theory of avoidance learning?
-Involves escape from the Warning signal.
For example, in the two-way shuttle box, the rat runs to the 'safe' side when he hears the WS. In Mowrer's view, the escape response (escape from the WS) should reduce fear since the animal is drawn away from the danger signal.
The reduction in fear serves as a reinforcer to increase the likelihood of escape responses on future trials.
what is Mowrer's Key Feature?
-Mowrer's interpretation does not say the rat 'anticipates' future shock and thus 'avoids' it.......
-Instead, the animals learn to fear the WS due to Pavlovian conditioning contingencies, and then to escape the fear elicited by the CS. Animal never really learns avoidance (or anticipation) at all.
what was an initial study to support at least the first factor in the Theory?
-Many studies show that animal's learn an emotional (fear) response to the WS via Pavlovian conditioning.
1. Release of stress hormones during WS
2. Increase in heart rate during WS
3. If given the opportunity, animals will escape from vicinity in which WS is presented.
4. Rats will bury metal prods from which they received shock, and will also bury a light that was used to signal the shock.
what are 3 criticisms of the Model?
1. Avoidance behavior is resistant to extinction
2. Apparent absence of fear in well-trained rats
3. Unsignaled Avoidance- Sidman Avoidance Task
Note: many other theories of what is learned in
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