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Chapter 13 - Pathophysiology
Chapter 13: Alterations in Oxygen Transport
Terms in this set (30)
Red blood cells normally survive 3 to 4 months in the circulation.
Approximately 45% of the blood is composed of cells, and 55% is plasma.
Red blood cell production in the bone marrow is inhibited by hypoxemia.
A reticulocyte is an immature erythrocyte.
The reticulocyte count is increased after acute blood loss.
Mature reticulocytes have no mitochondria.
The common form of hemoglobin contained in adult red blood cells is formed by two α chains and two γ chains.
When fully saturated, a hemoglobin molecule carries two oxygen molecules.
The normal oxygen content of arterial blood is about 20 ml/dl.
Acidemia increases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
The primary source of erythropoietin is the
a. bone marrow.
Which of the following conditions is associated with an elevated reticulocyte count?
a. Renal disease
b. Aplastic anemia
d. Hemolytic anemia
Which of the following conditions is associated with a "shift to the right" of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
d. Low blood PCO2
An increase in hemoglobin affinity for oxygen occurs with
c. elevated PCO2.
Which of the following is necessary for red blood cell production?
Red blood cells differ from other cell types in the body because they
a. contain cytoplasmic proteins.
b. have no cytoplasmic organelles.
c. have a longer life span.
d. contain glycolytic enzymes.
Which of the following is indicative of hemolytic anemia?
a. Increased total iron-binding capacity
b. Increased heart rate
A low mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) are characteristic of which type of anemia?
a. Vitamin B12 deficiency
b. Folate deficiency
c. Iron deficiency
d. Erythropoietin deficiency
The arterial oxygen content (CaO2) for a patient with PaO2 100 mm Hg, SaO2 95%, and hemoglobin 15 g/dl would be _____ ml oxygen/dl.
Most carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream as
b. bicarbonate ion.
c. dissolved carbon dioxide.
d. carbonic acid.
The most appropriate treatment for secondary polycythemia is
a. volume expansion with saline.
b. measures to improve oxygenation.
A laboratory test that would be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia is
a. elevated total iron-binding capacity.
b. elevated MCHC and MCV.
c. elevated total and indirect bilirubin.
d. positive direct or indirect Coombs test.
Excessive red cell lysis can be detected by measuring serum
Red blood cells obtain nearly all of their energy from metabolism of
d. acetyl coenzyme A.
Which of the following laboratory findings would usually be found in aplastic anemia?
The most effective therapy for anemia associated with kidney failure is
a. iron administration.
b. high-protein diet.
c. erythropoietin administration.
d. vitamin B12 and folate administration.
Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of
b. intrinsic factor.
The most common cause of anemia is
a. acute bleeding.
b. iron deficiency.
c. protein malnutrition.
d. chronic disease.
Thalassemia may be confused with iron-deficiency anemia because they are both
d. responsive to iron therapy.
Patients who experience anemic episodes when exposed to certain drugs probably have
c. sickle cell anemia.
d. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
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