Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies
Vocab and Discussion Topics
Terms in this set (42)
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination. Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Belief that no matter what a person does, the outcome of life is already determined by God.
A radical reorientation of one's whole life away from sin and evil and toward God.
A group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways.
A tiny group of extreme puritans who vowed to break away from the Church of England.
The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
King Charles gave Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
70,000 refugees left England for New World: 20,000 to Massachusetts and 48,000 to the West Indies.
Anne Hutchinson's heretical belief that the truly saved didn't need to obey human or divine law.
It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution. It provides that all free men share in electing their magistrates, and uses secret, paper ballots. It states the powers of the government, and some limits within which that power is exercised.
Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves, but it belonged to the Pequot tribe. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
King Philip's War
A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs. They were led by a chief known as Metacom, or King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians.
New England Confederation
Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court between colonies.
English Civil War
Religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy and Parliament.
Dominion of New England
The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor.
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America.
When James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William III
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies.
Vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch.
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists.
They are designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality. Blue laws were passed across the colonies, particularly in Puritan New England and Quaker Pennsylvania.
German monk who is considered to be the person who started the Protestant Reformation. He began by criticizing Church practices and ultimately broke with the Catholic Church to form his own new religious faith.
The Frenchman was influenced by Luther and converted religions and became a highly influential Protestant leader.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders.
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished. After which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south.
Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who helped the Pilgrims survive. They had peace for 40 years until his death.
Aka King Philip, Native American ruler, who led the attack on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts.
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration.
Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England, until the colonists rebelled against him and forced him to return to England.
Prince of Orange, became co-monarch of England after Glorious Revolution.
Daughter of James II came to the throne and ruled jointly with her husband, William.
An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland.
He led a small military expedition against the Swedish. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English.
Duke of York
Charles II gave the entire area between Connecticut and Maryland to his brother. This created a problem with the Dutch who occupied this area. English forces capture New Amsterdam without a fight and the rest of the Dutch settlements soon followed.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Describe the Puritans and their beliefs and explain why they left England for the New World.
Puritans believed that each individual was connected to God and it was their responsibility to have a relationship with him. Every person was allowed to interpret the bible in their own way, Puritans did not believe in violence or the Catholic way of life. With the protestant church of England so similar to Catholicism the Puritans wanted a clean break. Not being allowed to practice their beliefs in England the Puritans set sail to the New World.
Explain the basic religious and governmental ideas and practices of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
A Puritan society that believed they had a convent with God to build a holy society. This society was meant to be a model for all of mankind. The government was run by the congregational church, this was not a democracy. Only the "visible saints" were allowed to be in the church.
Explain how Massachusetts Bay's conflict with religious dissenters as well as economic opportunities led to the expansion of New England into Rhode Island, Connecticut and elsewhere.
With the religious dissenters not being welcome in Massachusetts they sought out to find their own colony. Starting with Rhode Island founded by Roger Williams. Rhode Island was the most religiously free. The Dutch and English sprinkled into the Connecticut area. This opportunists and dissenters founded Hartford and a new land for religious freedom.
Describe the conflict between colonists and Indians in New England and the effects of King Philip's War.
Chieftain Massasoit wanted peace between the Indians and the white man. When Massasoit died so did the warm welcome given by the natives. After the Pequot War tension grew even more. Metacom, later known as King Philip had enough of the settlers. He attacked 52 towns and completely destroyed 12. King Philip's War set back the expansion to the west.
Describe the founding of New York and Pennsylvania, and explain why these two settlements as well as the other middle colonies became so ethnically, religiously, and politically diverse.
New York was originally a Dutch colony until the Duke of York was given the land by his brother Charles II. The English may have taken over the colony but the Dutch culture remained in the streets of New York. Pennsylvania was entirely different. Founded by Quakers looking for a better life this new colony welcomed all religions making it a beacon for everyone to come.