thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates secretion of adrenal cortical hormones such as cortisol.
Melanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH)
Stimulates color change in reptiles and amphibians; various functions in mammals.
hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands
Cortisol and Cortisone are types of these hormones, produced in the Adrenal cortex, which increase blood glucose levels through stimulation of gluconeogenesis and the decrease of protein synthesis. They also reduce the body's immunological and inflammatory responses.
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
A group of bioactive, hormone-like chemicals derived from fatty acids that have a wide variety of biological effects including roles in inflammation, platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle dilation and constriction, cell growth, protection of from acid in the stomach, and many more.
"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
voltage gated channels
gated channel that depends on a change in electrical potential on the cell membrane
central nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
The mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse in a myelinated nerve fibre; actually travels by leaping through the nodes of Ranvier in a myelinated fibre; thus, the local circuits occur only at the nodes where action potential is boosted to the same height by ionic mechanisms
Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
sodium potassium pump
actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in
negative feedback system
Reverses a change in a controlled condition. e.g. regulation of (high) blood pressure.
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell