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42 terms

Principal Mammalian Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones

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calcitonin
thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
melatonin
hormone secreted by the pineal gland
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH).
Conserves water by stimulating its reabsorption from urine. (Kidneys)
Oxytocin (OT)
Stimulates contraction (uterus)
cortisol
an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates secretion of adrenal cortical hormones such as cortisol.
Melanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH)
Stimulates color change in reptiles and amphibians; various functions in mammals.
(GH)
Stimulates growth by promoting bone growth, protein synthesis, and fat break down.
Prolactin (PRL)
Stimulates milk production.
Thyroid- Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
stimulates thyroxine secretion.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Stimulates ovulation stimulates testosterone in males.
FSH
Stimulates spermatogeneiss in males; stimulates development of ovaries in females.
parathyroid hormone
hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands
throxine
increases glucose in blood by instestines
insulin
hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas
glucagon
a hormone secreted by the pancreas
glucocorticoids
Cortisol and Cortisone are types of these hormones, produced in the Adrenal cortex, which increase blood glucose levels through stimulation of gluconeogenesis and the decrease of protein synthesis. They also reduce the body's immunological and inflammatory responses.
epinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
prostaglandins
A group of bioactive, hormone-like chemicals derived from fatty acids that have a wide variety of biological effects including roles in inflammation, platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle dilation and constriction, cell growth, protection of from acid in the stomach, and many more.
aldosterone
"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
voltage gated channels
gated channel that depends on a change in electrical potential on the cell membrane
synapse
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
axon
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
dendrite
short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron
central nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
salutatory conduction
The mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse in a myelinated nerve fibre; actually travels by leaping through the nodes of Ranvier in a myelinated fibre; thus, the local circuits occur only at the nodes where action potential is boosted to the same height by ionic mechanisms
schwann cells
Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
oligodendrocytes cells
type of glia cells; makes the myelin sheath in CNS
nodes of ranvier
small gaps in the myelin sheath of medullated axons
white matter
whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths
grey matter
greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers
neuroglia
sustentacular tissue that surrounds and supports neurons in the central nervous system
sodium potassium pump
actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in
NMJ
synapse between motor neuron and myofiber
negative feedback system
Reverses a change in a controlled condition. e.g. regulation of (high) blood pressure.
tetanus
a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses
recruitment
an increase in the number of motor units being activated
power stroke
Pull thin filament across thick filament
hypertrophy
abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ
sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
sarin gas
Like other nerve agents, sarin attacks the nervous system of a living organism. It is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor.