How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

71 terms

primates test

STUDY
PLAY
Reproductive Efficiency
Mammals are viviparous
Viviparous
Give birth to live young (no egg)
- Protection
- Nutrition
Heterodontism
Different types of teeth
Dental formula
2:1:2:3
Omnivorous diet
Eat alot of kinds of food
Homeothermy
Maintenence of constant internal body temperature through cellular respiration. Allows mammals to survive in a wide variety of temperatures.
Monotremes
Egg-laying mammals
Example: Platypus
Marsupials
Pouched mammals
Gives birth to under-developed live young
Develops inside the pouch
Placentals
Humans
Placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to develop fetus
Order Primates
Prisimians - monkeys - apes - humans
Primates
Prosimian - anthropoids
Anthropoids
New world monkeys - old world monkeys
Old world monkeys
Hominoids
Hominoids
Lesser apes - great apes - humans
Arboreal adaptations
Tree-dwelling adaptations
Cartmill's visual predation hypothesis
Early primates developed binocular vision because they were hunting insects (nuts don't move; insects do)
Primate locomotion
Quadropedalism - clinging/leaping - braciation - bipedalism
Quadropedalism
Walks on 4 legs
Ex: baboon
Brachiation
Arm over arm swinging, arms longer than legs
Ex: orangutans
Bipedalism
Walks on 2 legs
Primatology
Primate behavior
- gives clues to ancestors behaviors
Grooming
Hygiene-parasites, social-eases relationships
Dominance
Some members are dominant, maintained through hostile/threatening behavior
adaptive
Cuts down on chaos
Keeps group together
Mother-infant relationship
Harlow's studies
- Wire monkey with milk bottles
- Monkey covered in soft fabric with no food
sense of touch is important
Endotherms
Maintain body temperature internally (cellular respiration
Alloparent
Individual other than a parent that exhibits parental behavior. It teaches the childless how to parent. If parents die, the alloparent will "adopt" the offspring.
Male/Female relationships
Close bonding is not common in non human primates, little separation between roles of female and male
Sexual dimorphism
Males are larger in size and canine teeth
Canine teeth
Fighting other males for access to females
Communication
Any act that conveys information
Ex: gesture, facial expression, scent, displays
Displays
Stereotyped behavior that communicate emotions
Ritualized behavior
Exaggerated behavior, removed from its original context
Mounting
Nothing to do with sex, has to do with dominance
Language
Apes can't speak - throat anatomy is different
Hyoid bone is the capacity for language
Human language - abstract
Able to speak about things that aren't present in space or time
Arbitrary
Words have no relationship with what they stand for
Ex: flower
Sociobiology
Evolution of behavior by natural selection, assumes behaviors are genetic (controversial), natural selection will choose for the reproductively successful mammals
Infanticide
New male comes into a group and kills all infants
Ovulating
Can become pregnant
Altruistic behavior
Self sacrificing behavior, females and relatives fight to defend infants
Kin selection
Number of genes from relatives other than self

Parent/offspring - 1/2 genes shared
Siblings- 1/2
Aunt/uncle- 1/4
Niece/Nephew- 1/4
Male success
Quantity of offspring (promiscuous)
Female success
Quality of offspring (nurturing)
Coevolution
Flowering plants and insects evolve together
Hominids
Modern humans and all bipedal species back to the split between apes and humans
Australopithecines
Australopithecus Afarensis
Genus Species
Bipedal characteristics
Location of foramen magnum, shape of innominate, angle of femur (thigh bone)
- Shows transition between quadropedal primates and modern humans
Australopithecines
- 450 cc
- Bipedal but probably still a climber (curved fingers)
- 3-3.5 feel tall
- No tools
- Prey
- Found in South and East Africa
Archaeological evidence for bipedalism
Laetoli footprints
Pilocene
- Warming trend - 4-6 million years
- Reduction of forest
- Increase in grassland and swampy areas
Ecotone
Where 2 ecological zones meet
Homo Habilis
- 3-1.5 million years ago
- 1st tool maker - "handy man" (choppers)
- Scavenger, not a hunter
- 666 cc
- tool making <--> bipedalism
Homo Habilis
- Lack of a well-defined estrus (ovulation)
- Pelvis shape in male is compact (faster runner)
- Pelvis shape in female is wider (child birth)
- Babies are small brained
- Prolonged maturation
- Harsh environment
Reciprocal food sharing
They must rely on one another
Homo Erectus
- 1.5-300,000 years ago
- Larger brain - 950 cc
- Found in Africa, China, Indonesia, and Europe
Pleistocene
ICE AGES
- The water in the oceans is in the ice
- Land bridges
Environment in the ice age
- bigger brain
* fire: accident
* tools
* home base
* hunter; scavenger
Handaxe
Requires thought and planning
Flake tools
Sharp, useful tools
(flakes from the handaxe)
Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis
- "Neandertal Man"
- 125,000-40,000 years ago
- 1500 cc (modern: 130 cc) for physical strength and powerful upper body strength
- Large body size comes from ice age
- Found in Africa, Europe, and Middle East
- Probably developing lighter skin
- More tools
- Language- modern hyoid
- Home base
- Religious rituals (Neandertals or modern homo sapiens?)
Burials
- Israel
- Grave goods
- Flowers
Cave Bear Cult
- Switzerland
- Hunting magic
Cooperative hunting
group hunting
Modern Homo Sapiens Sapiens
- 40,000 - present
- "Cro Magnon man"
- 1330 cc
- diverse tools
- Art/Rituals
Composite tools
Made of more than one material
Atlatl
Spear thrower
Out of Africa Theory
- Modern homo sapiens evolved in Africa and migrated out of there.
- Came in contact with Neandertals
Wilson's Hypothesis
- Supported the out of africa theory
- mitochondrial DNA
Extermination
Moderns killed neandertals or out-competed them for food
Interbreeding
Modern humans have some Neandertal DNA
Multiregional evolution
Moderns came from Europe, Middle East, and Africa