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Maintenence of constant internal body temperature through cellular respiration. Allows mammals to survive in a wide variety of temperatures.
Cartmill's visual predation hypothesis
Early primates developed binocular vision because they were hunting insects (nuts don't move; insects do)
Some members are dominant, maintained through hostile/threatening behavior
Cuts down on chaos
Keeps group together
- Wire monkey with milk bottles
- Monkey covered in soft fabric with no food
sense of touch is important
Individual other than a parent that exhibits parental behavior. It teaches the childless how to parent. If parents die, the alloparent will "adopt" the offspring.
Close bonding is not common in non human primates, little separation between roles of female and male
Evolution of behavior by natural selection, assumes behaviors are genetic (controversial), natural selection will choose for the reproductively successful mammals
Number of genes from relatives other than self
Parent/offspring - 1/2 genes shared
Location of foramen magnum, shape of innominate, angle of femur (thigh bone)
- Shows transition between quadropedal primates and modern humans
- 450 cc
- Bipedal but probably still a climber (curved fingers)
- 3-3.5 feel tall
- No tools
- Found in South and East Africa
- Warming trend - 4-6 million years
- Reduction of forest
- Increase in grassland and swampy areas
- 3-1.5 million years ago
- 1st tool maker - "handy man" (choppers)
- Scavenger, not a hunter
- 666 cc
- tool making <--> bipedalism
- Lack of a well-defined estrus (ovulation)
- Pelvis shape in male is compact (faster runner)
- Pelvis shape in female is wider (child birth)
- Babies are small brained
- Prolonged maturation
- Harsh environment
- 1.5-300,000 years ago
- Larger brain - 950 cc
- Found in Africa, China, Indonesia, and Europe
Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis
- "Neandertal Man"
- 125,000-40,000 years ago
- 1500 cc (modern: 130 cc) for physical strength and powerful upper body strength
- Large body size comes from ice age
- Found in Africa, Europe, and Middle East
- Probably developing lighter skin
- More tools
- Language- modern hyoid
- Home base
- Religious rituals (Neandertals or modern homo sapiens?)
Modern Homo Sapiens Sapiens
- 40,000 - present
- "Cro Magnon man"
- 1330 cc
- diverse tools
Out of Africa Theory
- Modern homo sapiens evolved in Africa and migrated out of there.
- Came in contact with Neandertals
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