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Reproductive Efficiency

Mammals are viviparous


Give birth to live young (no egg)
- Protection
- Nutrition


Different types of teeth

Dental formula


Omnivorous diet

Eat alot of kinds of food


Maintenence of constant internal body temperature through cellular respiration. Allows mammals to survive in a wide variety of temperatures.


Egg-laying mammals
Example: Platypus


Pouched mammals
Gives birth to under-developed live young
Develops inside the pouch


Placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to develop fetus

Order Primates

Prisimians - monkeys - apes - humans


Prosimian - anthropoids


New world monkeys - old world monkeys

Old world monkeys



Lesser apes - great apes - humans

Arboreal adaptations

Tree-dwelling adaptations

Cartmill's visual predation hypothesis

Early primates developed binocular vision because they were hunting insects (nuts don't move; insects do)

Primate locomotion

Quadropedalism - clinging/leaping - braciation - bipedalism


Walks on 4 legs
Ex: baboon


Arm over arm swinging, arms longer than legs
Ex: orangutans


Walks on 2 legs


Primate behavior
- gives clues to ancestors behaviors


Hygiene-parasites, social-eases relationships


Some members are dominant, maintained through hostile/threatening behavior
Cuts down on chaos
Keeps group together

Mother-infant relationship

Harlow's studies
- Wire monkey with milk bottles
- Monkey covered in soft fabric with no food
sense of touch is important


Maintain body temperature internally (cellular respiration


Individual other than a parent that exhibits parental behavior. It teaches the childless how to parent. If parents die, the alloparent will "adopt" the offspring.

Male/Female relationships

Close bonding is not common in non human primates, little separation between roles of female and male

Sexual dimorphism

Males are larger in size and canine teeth

Canine teeth

Fighting other males for access to females


Any act that conveys information
Ex: gesture, facial expression, scent, displays


Stereotyped behavior that communicate emotions

Ritualized behavior

Exaggerated behavior, removed from its original context


Nothing to do with sex, has to do with dominance


Apes can't speak - throat anatomy is different
Hyoid bone is the capacity for language

Human language - abstract

Able to speak about things that aren't present in space or time


Words have no relationship with what they stand for
Ex: flower


Evolution of behavior by natural selection, assumes behaviors are genetic (controversial), natural selection will choose for the reproductively successful mammals


New male comes into a group and kills all infants


Can become pregnant

Altruistic behavior

Self sacrificing behavior, females and relatives fight to defend infants

Kin selection

Number of genes from relatives other than self

Parent/offspring - 1/2 genes shared
Siblings- 1/2
Aunt/uncle- 1/4
Niece/Nephew- 1/4

Male success

Quantity of offspring (promiscuous)

Female success

Quality of offspring (nurturing)


Flowering plants and insects evolve together


Modern humans and all bipedal species back to the split between apes and humans


Australopithecus Afarensis
Genus Species

Bipedal characteristics

Location of foramen magnum, shape of innominate, angle of femur (thigh bone)
- Shows transition between quadropedal primates and modern humans


- 450 cc
- Bipedal but probably still a climber (curved fingers)
- 3-3.5 feel tall
- No tools
- Prey
- Found in South and East Africa

Archaeological evidence for bipedalism

Laetoli footprints


- Warming trend - 4-6 million years
- Reduction of forest
- Increase in grassland and swampy areas


Where 2 ecological zones meet

Homo Habilis

- 3-1.5 million years ago
- 1st tool maker - "handy man" (choppers)
- Scavenger, not a hunter
- 666 cc
- tool making <--> bipedalism

Homo Habilis

- Lack of a well-defined estrus (ovulation)
- Pelvis shape in male is compact (faster runner)
- Pelvis shape in female is wider (child birth)
- Babies are small brained
- Prolonged maturation
- Harsh environment

Reciprocal food sharing

They must rely on one another

Homo Erectus

- 1.5-300,000 years ago
- Larger brain - 950 cc
- Found in Africa, China, Indonesia, and Europe


- The water in the oceans is in the ice
- Land bridges

Environment in the ice age

- bigger brain
* fire: accident
* tools
* home base
* hunter; scavenger


Requires thought and planning

Flake tools

Sharp, useful tools
(flakes from the handaxe)

Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis

- "Neandertal Man"
- 125,000-40,000 years ago
- 1500 cc (modern: 130 cc) for physical strength and powerful upper body strength
- Large body size comes from ice age
- Found in Africa, Europe, and Middle East
- Probably developing lighter skin
- More tools
- Language- modern hyoid
- Home base
- Religious rituals (Neandertals or modern homo sapiens?)


- Israel
- Grave goods
- Flowers

Cave Bear Cult

- Switzerland
- Hunting magic

Cooperative hunting

group hunting

Modern Homo Sapiens Sapiens

- 40,000 - present
- "Cro Magnon man"
- 1330 cc
- diverse tools
- Art/Rituals

Composite tools

Made of more than one material


Spear thrower

Out of Africa Theory

- Modern homo sapiens evolved in Africa and migrated out of there.
- Came in contact with Neandertals

Wilson's Hypothesis

- Supported the out of africa theory
- mitochondrial DNA


Moderns killed neandertals or out-competed them for food


Modern humans have some Neandertal DNA

Multiregional evolution

Moderns came from Europe, Middle East, and Africa

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