Upgrade to remove ads
Advanced Placement Psychology
Terms in this set (48)
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Concrete Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these; males have one. One chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional levels in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females.
our sense of being male or female.
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
Infant startle response to sudden, intense noise or movement. When startled the newborn arches its back, throws back its head, and flings out its arms and legs. Usually disappears after four months.
Reflex in which a newborn fans out the toes when the sole of the foot is touched
child who returns from school to an empty home because their parent or parents are away at work, or a child who is often left at home with little parental supervision.
are left unsupervised after school and are at a higher risk for accidents, isolated and alone
theorist that developed a series of stages in which an individual passes during cognitive development.
Growth occurs in stages - sensory motor (0-2), pre-operational, experiential (2-7), concrete operational (7-11) formal operational (11+) formal and abstract operations
theorist who claimed individuals went through a series of stages in the process of moral development.
Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Developing children progress through a predictable sequence of stages of moral reasoning (preconventional, conventional, postconventional).
Proposed that individuals go through 8 distinct, universal stages of development. Each stage consists of a developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis.
Infant; 0-2 years: Trust Vs. mistrust 2. Toddler; 2-3 years: Autonomy Vs shame and doubt 3. Preschool; 3-5 years: Initiative Vs guilt 4. School age; 6-12 years: Industry Vs inferiority 5. Adolescent; 12-18 years: Identity Vs identity (or role) confusion 6. Young adult: 18-25 years: Intimacy Vs isolation 7. Middle adult: 25-45 years: Generativity Vs stagnation 8. Older adult: 45-death: Ego integrity Vs despair
Social Learning Theory
Observational learning; Bobo dolls; social-cognitive theory
Social Learning Theory - emphasizes modeling or observational learning as a powerful source of development and behavior modification
the feelings of sadness or loneliness that accompany children's leaving home and entering adulthood
People tend to put off dying when there is an event to look forward to, such as holidays
spirit affects life expectancy; depression causes poor health and early death; ex: more people die 2 days after Christmas than before
Impairment of mental functioning and global cognitive abilities in otherwise alert individuals, causing memory loss and related symptoms and typically having a progressive nature
chronic, progressive, degenerative cognitivedisorder that accounts for more than 60% of all dementias
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
stages vs. continuity
Debate over development occurring in set time periods verses continual or individual changes and development
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP Psychology - Development Psychology
Psych: Chapter 5 Notecards
Ogozalek Chapter 5 Lifespan Development
AP Psych: Unit 9 Vocab
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Mental Health and the History of Psychology