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Terms in this set (46)
The study of hormones
What does the endocrine system do with the nervous system in the body cells?
The endocrine system acts with nervous system to coordinate and integrate activity of the body cells.
What does the endocrine system influence ?
The endocrine system influences metabolic activities via hormones transported in blood.
Is the endocrine response slower or faster than the nervous system?
The endocrine system response is slower but longer lasting than nervous system.
What does the endocrine system control and integrate in the body?
Reproduction, growth, development development, mobilization of body defenses.
What else does the endocrine system control and integrate in the body?
Maintenance of electrolyte, water and nutrients balance of blood. Regulates the cellular metabolism and energy balance.
What are the two types of glands in endocrine system?
exocrine glands and endocrine glands.
What are exocrine glands?
Non Hormonal substances like sweat/saliva and have ducs t carry secretion to membrane surface.
What are endocrine glands?
Produce hormones and lack ducts.
What are the types of endocrine glands?
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands.
is a neuroendocrine organ.
Pancreas, gonads, and placenta have?
some exocrine and endocrine functions.
What are other tissues and organs that produce hormones?
Adipose cells, thymus and cells in walls of small intestine, stomach, kidneys,and heart.
What are the 3 chemical messengers?
Hormones, Autocrines, and Paracrines.
are long-distance chemical signals; travel in blood or lymph.
are chemicals that exert effects on same cells that secrete them.
are locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them.
What is one thing that Autocrines and paracrines have in common?
they are local chemical messengers yet are not considered part of endocrine system.
What are the two main classes of hormones?
Amino acid- based hormones and Steroids.
Amino acid- based hormones
are amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins.
they synthesized from cholesterol also gonadal and adrenocortical hormones.
What is the mechanism of hormone action do?
though hormones circulate systemically only cells with receptors for that hormone are affected.
tissues with receptors for specific hormone.
In mechanism of hormone action, what do hormones alter?
hormones alter target cell activity.
In mechanism of hormone action, hormones action on target cells may be to?
Alter plasma membrane permeability and/or membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels.
Stimulate synthesis of enzymes or other proteins.
Activate or deactivate enzymes.
Induce secretory activity
In mechanism of hormone action, Hormones act in receptors how many ways depending on their chemical nature and receptor location?
Hormones act in receptors in 1 or 2 ways depending on their chemical nature or and receptor location
What is the 1st way hormones act in receptors?
Water- soluble hormones (all amino acid- based hormones except thyroid hormone)
Act on plasma membrane receptors.
Act via G protein second messengers.
Cannot enter cell.
What is the 2nd way hormones act in receptors?
Lipid- soluble hormones( steroid and thyroid hormones).
Act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genes
Can enter cell
In target cell specificity, target cells must have specific receptors to which hormones binds, for example...
ACTH receptors found only on certain cells of adrenal cortex.
Thyroxin receptors are found on nearly all cell body.
Target cell activation depends on three factors like?
Blood levels of hormones.
Relative number of receptors on or in target cell.
Affinity of binding between receptor and hormone.
In target cell activation, what are the two names of hormones influence their receptors?
Up-regulation and Down regulation.
target cells form more receptors in response to low hormone levels.
target cells lose receptors in response to high levels.
In control of hormone release, blood levels of hormones are?
Controlled by negative feedback systems.
Vary only within narrow, desirable range.
In control of hormone release, endocrine gland stimulated to synthesize and release hormones in response to?
What happens in Humoral Stimuli?
Changing blood levels of ions and nutrients directly stimulate secretion of hormones.
What is an example of Humoral Stimuli?
Example: Ca2+ in blood
Declining blood Ca2+ concentration stimulates parathyroid glands to secrete PTH (Parathyroid hormone).
PTH causes Ca2+ concentration to rise and stimulus is removed.
What happens in Neural Stimuli?
Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release.
Sympathetic nervous system fibers stimulate adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines.
What is the main thing that happens in Hormonal Stimuli?
Hormones stimulate other endocrine organs to release their hormones.
What is the process of Hormonal Stimuli?
1. Hypothalamic hormones stimulate release of most anterior pituitary hormones.
2 .Anterior pituitary hormones stimulate targets to secrete still more hormones.
3. Hypothalamic-pituitary- target endocrine organ feed back loop; hormones from final target organs inhibit release of anterior pituitary hormones.
What is the 1st fact about Nervous System Modulation?
Nervous system modifies stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms.
Example :under severe stress, hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system activated
Body glucose levels rise.
What is the 2nd fact about Nervous System Modulation?
Nervous system can override normal endocrine controls.
In hormones in the blood, hormones circulate in blood either free or bound because?
Steroids and thyroid hormone are attached to plasma proteins and all other circulate without carriers.
In hormones in the blood, concentration of circulating hormone reflects on?
Rate of release, speed of inactivation and, removal from body.
In hormones in the blood, hormones removed from blood by?
Degrading enzymes, kidneys, and liver.
time required for hormone's blood level to decrease by half.
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