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How do they keep homeostasis?

1. Keeping blood levels of these things (water, salts) stable
2. keeping body temp. stable
3. keeping ph levels stable


ingest, filter, parasites


both sexually and asexually, and some only sexually


some are thin enough to use diffusion, some need complex systems using lungs or gills


system of nerve cells and sometimes a brain to detect smell sound, pain, pressure, heat, light


some are sessile (remain in one spot) most are motile ( move around)


(transport food, waste, 02) some are thing enough to use diffusion, most have complex systems using a heart


(releases nitrogenous waste) some are thin enough to use diffusion, most use kidneys and skin


(invertebrates) sea anemone, jelly fish, extra cellular, 2 way, gastrovascular cavity, diffusion (no system)


(invertebrates) plinaria, extracellular, 2 way, gastrovascular cavity, diffusion (no system)


(invertebrates) leech, earth worm, extracellular, 1 way, single loop, closed circulatory, several hearts


food is digested inside of cells, sponges


food is digested outside cells, then absorbed into cells

benefit of extracellular

allows animals to eat a variety of foods, specifically larger foods

gastrovascular cavity

area inside animal's body where cells secrete enzymes to chemically digest and absorb food, always 2 way


chewing, mechanical digestion

chemical digestion in the mouth

enzyme amylase breaks down starch to sugars

muscular contractions called peristalsis

push food down to stomach past the cardiac sphincter


flap of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing so that food doesn't enter lungs

heart burn vs GERD (reflux)

stomach ACIDS back up and irritate e. l./stomach CONTENTS back up and irritate e. l.

mechanical digestion in stomach

stomach contracts/ churns food

chemical digestion in stomach

HCL lowers the pH to activate the enzyme pepsin for breakdown of proteins

the heart's pace maker is the (location too)

sa node located in the R atrium

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