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Stages of Reading Development; Reading Terms/Defs; Language Key Terms/Concepts; Reading Assessments; Phonemic Awareness;

Do children need to be highly intelligent to become successful readers?


Will the development of early reading skills allow children to gain opportunities for future learning possibilities?


Name 4 stages of reading development.

4 Stages of Reading Development:

1. Emergent

2. Beginning

3. Fluent

4. Remedial

Emergent readers are often in what age range?

Early childhood to pre-K.

Name 3 characteristics of the emergent reader.

1. Beginning awareness that
text progresses L --> R

2. Scribbling

3. Recognition of visual clues in environmental print

An example of visual clues in environmental print would be ...

Letters in a child's name

Should basic phonemic awareness begin during reading instruction for emergent readers?


Name 4 objectives of reading instruction for emergent readers.

With reading instruction the child should begin basic phonemic awareness:

1. Begin to recognize print in the environment

2. Begin to recognize letter shapes

3. Begin to make predictions in stories

4. Pretend to read

Emergent readers can be characterized as:
- pre-alphabetic
- Alphabetic
- Orthographic

Emergent readers can be characterized as:

Beginning readers are often in what age range?

The age of beginning readers often ranges between:
K to 2nd (3rd) grade

Beginning readers can be characterized as:
- pre-alphabetic
- Alphabetic
- Orthographic


Name 3 of the 6 Developmental Expectations of the beginning reader.

1. Letters are associated with sounds

2. Begin to read simple CVC words

3. Writing simple CVC words evolves to CVC

Name 3 additional Developmental Expectations of the beginning reader.

4. Rhyme

5. Blend words

6. Begin to recognize phonograms

Beginning readers begin writing simple CVC words with a single sound, usually the beginning sound. What happens next?

For beginning readers, writing simple CVC words evolves from C to CC to CVC.

Beginning readers should receive systematic and explicit instruction in reading.
Name 4 objectives of this instruction.

1. Phonics

2. Vocabulary

3. Comprehension

4. Listening and writing

The phonics objective of beginning reading instruction should include 4 elements. Name them.


* Phonemic awareness

* Phonemic blending

* Phonemic decoding

The vocabulary objective of beginning reading instruction should include 3 elements. Name them.


1. Word-attack skills

2. Spelling

Word-attack skills refers to...

Word-attack skills refers to strategies readers use to decode unknown words.

Fluent readers are often in what grade range?

4th to 8th.

Fluent readers can be characterized as:
- pre-alphabetic
- Alphabetic
- Orthographic


Orthographic: ability to decode using larger units of print.

Developmental expectations of fluent readers contain 4 objectives. Name them.

1. Read larger units of print

2. Use analogy to decode larger words

3. Decoding becomes fluent

4. Reading accuracy & speed are stressed & improve

Fluent readers should receive systematic and explicit instruction in reading.
Name 6 objectives of this instruction.

1. Work-attack skills (multisyllabic words)

2. Decoding

3. Spelling and vocabulary

4. Fluency

5. Comprehension of text (context skills)

6. Utilizing metacognition

Define metacognition

A comprehension strategy used while reading that involves:

* Monitoring understanding

* Reflecting on what has been read

Remedial readers are identified in what grade?

As early as 3rd grade.

Remedial readers can be characterized as:
- Pre-alphabetic
- Alphabetic
- Orthographic

Not able to demonstrate competency in these skills.

Remedial readers are taught from the same systematic framework used in the early grades. Are the developmental expectations the same?


The expectation is that these students will acquire reading skills consistent with the standards.

How can remedial readers attain the reading skills with which they are struggling?

Via re-teaching all of the modalities taught to beginning readers.

There are 6 objectives for reading instruction for remedial readers. Name the first 3.

1. Assessment of identified reading weakness (diagnosis)

2. Teaching explicit strategies based on diagnosis

3. Linking instruction to prior knowledge

There are 6 objectives for reading instruction for remedial readers. Name the second 3.

4. Increasing instruction time

5. Dividing skills into smaller steps

6. Providing reinforcement & positive feedback

The more thorough definition of phoneme is...

The smallest part of spoken language
that makes a difference in the meaning of words.

Phoneme Manipulation is:

* Blending phonemes to make words

* Segmenting words into phonemes

* Deleting/Adding phonemes from/to words

* Substituting phonemes to make new words


Smallest part of a written language
that represents a phoneme
when spelling a word.

Are graphemes single or multiple letters?


Phonics is:

The understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes and graphemes.

Good phonics instruction is systematic and...

... explicit

Systematic phonics instruction has these 3 characteristics:

1. Planned

2. Carefully selected letter/sound relationships

3. Logically sequenced

Explicit phonics programs ...

... provide teachers with
precise directions for teaching
letter/sound relationships.

Phonics instruction is most effective when instruction begins at what grade?

Kindergarten or 1st grade.

T/F: Approximately 2 years of phonics instruction is sufficient for most students.

True :-)

Phonemic awareness is the ability to:

* Hear
* Identify
* Manipulate
the phonemes in spoken words

Phonemic awareness is also the understanding that ...

... sounds work together to make words.

Is phonemic awareness the most important determinant toward becoming a successful reader?


Phonological awareness includes phonemic awareness and ...

... the ability to manipulate the sound structure of language.

Does phonological awareness include the ability to work with the sounds of a language at the word, syllable and phoneme level?


Do phonological awareness activities involve working with rhymes, words, syllables, onsets and rimes?


Define syllable

A word part that contains a
vowel or vowel sound.

Decoding is:

The analysis of spoken or written symbols
in order to understand meaning.

T/F: Decoding primarily refers to word identification.


Segmenting is:

* Breaking words into phonemes or syllables
* Breaking syllables into onsets & rimes

Onset is the:

Initial consonant sound of a syllable.

Rime is the:

The part of a syllable that contains the vowel and everything after it.

Onset & rime are smaller than syllables but larger than...

... phonemes.

Is the b- in bag the onset or the rime?


What is the rime of bag?


Blending can be combining phonemes to create...

... words or syllables.

Blending can also be the combining of onsets and rimes creating??

... syllables.

Can the combination of syllables creating words be called blending?


Define morpheme

A unit of meaning that cannot be divided into smaller elements.

Is book a morpheme?


Semantics is:

The analysis and study of
meanings of
words, phrases, and sentences.

Can understanding semantics assist when decoding in understanding why a word "sounds" correct in a sentence?


Syntax is:

The study of:
* how sentences are formed

* pattern or structure of word order in sentences

Is syntax also the examination of various ways that words combine to create meaning?


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