47 terms

AP World History Unit 6 Chapter 22

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Al Qaeda
Was led by Osama Bin Laden, this was an international terrorist organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers in New York and the Pentagon in Washington D.C. The U.S. led its "war on terrorism" against this group.
Glasnost
This term translates from the Russian as "openness," and it allowed more open discussion of political, social and economic issues, as well as open criticism of the government. Although this reform was commended by western nations, it caused problems for Mikhail Gorbachev at home. After many years of suppression, people vented hostility toward the Russian government that encouraged open revolt, some of the republics wanted independence from Soviet Control.
Green Revolution
The collection of new agricultural techniques which involved two important practices: the use of new, higher yield seeds, and the expanded use of many fertilizers. New miracle miracle diffused rapidly around the world, with many countries recording dramatic increases in food production. Genetically modified organisms came into use and this helped in the increase of food. However, as this metamorphosis contributed to the good health of people around the world, it failed to help the wide-spread famine of the Sub-Saharan African peoples. They were unable to afford fertilizers, seed and machinery, and the situation worsened with the widespread rapid population growth.
Saddam Hussain
Leader of Iraq until the U.S. government attacked him in Iraq on the premise that he was harboring Al Qaeda operatives and constructing Weapons of Mass Destruction. Bush used the foreign policy of preemption, or attacking before being attacked.
Nikita Khrushchev
Communist leader of the USSR after Stalin's death in 1953. He discredited Stalin by using Lenin's letter to Stalin after he died. This denouncement lead to deStalinization, a process that led to reforms, such as loosening government censorship of the press, decentralizing economic decision- making, restructuring the collectivized farms and causing the Sino (Chinese)-Soviet split. Advocated "peaceful coexistence" in foreign policy, or the relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and the USSR. Other members of the governing body of the USSR (Politburo) criticized him from making these reforms, and the diplomatic and military failure of the Cuban Missile Crisis led to his removal from office. Most of reforms failed by the early 1960's and was replaced by the more conservative Leonid Brezhnev.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Signed in 1995 by the countries of North America whose goal was to more closely integrate the countries' economies by eliminating tariffs and reducing restrictions so that companies may expand into all countries freely. Mexico hopes to stimulate its overall growth, enrich business community, and supply jobs for Mexicans in new industries.On the other hand, American firms gain from access to to inexpensive labor, raw materials, and tourism, as well as new markets to sell and invest in. Mexico runs the risk of being overshadowed by the US, but hopes that benefits will outweigh the problems. Many in the US criticized this agreement from taking US jobs and putting them in Mexico.
perestroika
This economic reform was Gorbachev's most radical and least successful policy. He tried to introduce the old soviet structure to modernization. He also transferred many economic powers held by the government to private hands. Specific reforms included authorization of some privately owned companies, penalties for under-performing state factories, farm leases outside the collective farms, price reforms, and encouragement of joint-ventures with foreign companies.
Vladimir Putin
New 21st century president of Russia who set out to redefine Russia's place in the world, which required Russia to adjust its relationship with the west, as well as its role among its former Soviet states.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. They helped stimulate innovation and helped China grow economically.
Tiananmen Crisis
Demonstration by students intellectuals in 1989 criticizing corruption and demanding democratic reforms, government responded by sending army in to cease protests who killed hundreds of citizens in China
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A document sponsored by the U.N. and signed by the U.N. general assembly in 1948 to promote human rights.
World Bank
Created in 1944 to help countries rebuild after WWII, today it loans money low and middle income countries. Its goals are to eliminate poverty in these countries and to supply economic development through investment in projects that build business, improve transportation and communication, provide jobs, and eliminate corruption in government. This has also supported health initiatives and efforts to reduce greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An organization of member states established in 1995 that have agreed to rules of world trade among nations. It is responsible for negotiations and implementing new trade agreements. It serves as a forum for settling trade disputes, and it supervises members to be sure that they follow the organization's rules. Most of the world's trading nations belong to this organization, while Russia is an exception. This organization oversees 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts that bind its 151 members. The process for a country to be part of this organization takes about five years. China was denied status from this organization for many years due to questions about their human rights. This organization has strict rules on who can enter.
Boris Yeltsin
Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. This era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 this man came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12 he was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But he never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, this man was deeply disliked by his people. His approval rating was two percent at some times
Mikhail Gorbachev
The soviet premiere in the 1980s, he relaxed USSR policies in three ways: glasnost (opening government), perestroika (opening economics), and democratization (some say in government). Unfortunately, this new economy could not support the arms race of the Cold War, causing this man to fall with the USSR.
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
compressed modernity
rapid econmoc and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democatizing political institution, a frowing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions
cultural globalization
worldwide spread of similar norms, values, and practices
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority.
dependency theory
A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
European Union
..., an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
fragmentation
A situation in which responsibility for a policy area is dispersed, making it difficult to coordinate the policy.
global elite culture
loosely defined group of the richest and most powerful people in the world
globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
household responsibility system
the system put into practice in China beginning in the early 1980s in which the major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on the profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government
human rights movement
Changing the way society views the rights of all of its memebers including minorities, clients with terminal illness (euthenasia), pregnant women, and older adults.
integration
Allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems
LDC MDC
more developed countries, less developed countries
market economy
Economic decisions are made by individuals or the open market.
marketization
The state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
mega cities
A city with a population of greater than 10 million
mixed economy
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
modernism
a term for the bold new experimental styles and forms that swept the arts during the first third of the twentieth century.
modernization model
model of economic development maintains that all countries go through five stages of development
NGO
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
passive resistance
Peaceful resistance to a government by fasting or refusing to cooperate
preemption
A doctrine under which certain federal laws preempt, or take precedence over, conflicting state or local laws.
"private business"
urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries that largely operate as capitalist interprises
politicization of religion
the use of religious principles to promote political ends and vise versa
post modernism
(1970's) An art movement reacting modernism, that uses hystorical styles, playful illusion and decoration in the design
socialist market economy
gradual infusion of capitalism while still retaining state control
stateless nations
People groups without established sovereign borders; such as Kurds or Palestinians
supra national organizations
An organization that exists in multiple countries
WMD
Weapons of Mass Destruction
privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
global pop culture
Popular cultural practices and institutions that have been adopted internationally, such as music, the Internet, television, food, and fashion.
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