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listening distractions

anything that competes for a listener's attention. May be internal or external.


Greek scholar and one of the first public speakers...introduced the Canons of Rhetoric

pre-preparation, preparation, pre-performance, performance

4 types of anxiety

pre-preparation anxiety

A form of public speaking anxiety that occurs the moment speakers learn they must give a speech

preparation anxiety

A form of public speaking anxiety that arises when a speaker begins to prepare for a speech. He may feel overwhelmed at the amount of time and planning required.

pre-performance anxiety

A form of public speaking anxiety tht occurs when the speaker begins to rehearse a speech.

performance anxiety

Anxiety when giving a speech. It is worse during the introduction of a speech.

organizational speech patterns

The way an infrmational text is presented to the reader: 1. chronological, 2. spatial, 3. cause/effect, 4. problem/solution, 5. topical, 6. narrative, 7. circular, 8. comparative

chronological pattern of arrangement

follows the sequential order of events

spatial pattern of arrangement

A pattern of organizing main points in order of their physical proximity...ex: a place, a scene, or an object.

cause/effect pattern of arrangement

a pattern of orgainzing speech points in order, first of causes and then of effects or vice versa Ex: bad habits =>disease

comparative pattern of arrangement

speech points are organized to show how your viewpoint or proposal is superior to one or more alternatives. Good for persuasive speeches.

problem/solution pattern of arrangement

organizes main points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem to provide justification for a proposed solution

topical pattern of arrangement

pattern of organizing points as subtopics or categories of the speech topic, most freedom of structure

narrative pattern of arrangement

organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a story

circular pattern of arrangement

organizing speech points so that each point leads to the next, eventually arriving back at the thesis


our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events


our most enduring judgements about what is good/bad in life as shaped by our culture and our unique experiences within it.


ways in which people perceive reality or determine the existance or validity of something.

canons of Rhetoric

5 parts of speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. Guidelines or rules established by Aristotle.

voluntary audience

a collection of people who chose to listen to a particular speaker or speech

captive audience

an audience that is required to attend

main points

statements that express your key ideas and major themes of a speech. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis statement.


aa problem-solving technique that involves the spontaneous generation of ideas: includes making lists, using word association, and mapping topics


a feeling of commonality with another, as you would like to establish with your audience.


only those points implied by the purpose and the thesis statement to focus on a main idea.


the parts of a composition should be arranged in a logical and orderly manner so that the meaning and ideas are clear and intelligible.


when the appropriate emphaiss or weight is equally divided among all parts, relative to the other parts and to the theme.

types of outlines

working, speaking, sentence, phrase, key-word

working outline

used to orgainze and firm up main points and develop supporting points to substantiate your evidence

speaking outline

a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech.

sentence outline

an outline in which each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form and in precisely the way the speaker wants to express an idea

phrase outline

takes parts of sentences and uses those phrases as instant reminders of what the point or sub-point means

keyword outline

uses smallest possible units of understanding to outline main/supporting points

library portal

an entry point into a large collection of research and reference in formation that has been selected and reviewed by librarians

types of speeches

informative(demo), persuasive, invitational, special occasion

informative speech

an unbiased speech that expands listener's knowledge with a demonstration, description, or explanation

persuasive speech

a type of speech that influences listern's beliefs and actions

invitational speech

a type of speech that amuses and diverts listeners so they relax and enjoy themselves, speech that allows the speaer to establish a dialogue with an audience to clarify postitions, explore issues and ideas, or share beliefs and values

special occasion speech

a speech that is prepared for a specific occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion...ex..introductory, commemorative, acceptance


a word, phrase, or passage that links one subject or idea to another in speech or writing and enables the speaker to move smoothly from one topic to another

characteristics of reliable websites

Is it reliable? look at URL, Is it authoritative? who wrote article/journal, Is it recent info?, How complete is it? if it's an excerpt from an article - read the whole article, Is it relevant?, Is it consistent or unbiased?


statistical characteristics like the geographic location, age, education, income, gender, ethnicity, religioius and political affiliation, etc...of a population


thinking of what you are going to say next - with a defensive posture - while someone is talking to you, instead of listening to them

pillars of character

trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness

types of search engines

individual, meta, specialized

closed-ended questions

these are designed to elicit a small range of answers. ex: yes or no

open-ended questions

these discourage verbalization and response; questions that seekk a response beyond a simple yes or now

common knowledge

info that is likely to be known by many people and is therefore in the public domain, the source need not be cited in a speech

general speech purpose

the broad speech purpose that answers the question "Why am I speaking on this topc for this particular audience and occasion?" Usually the purpose is to inform, to persuade, or to celebrate or commemorate a special occasion.

specific speech purpose

a refined statement of purpose that zeroes in more closely than the general purpose on the goal of the speech

thesis statement

complete sentence describing the them or central idea of a speech


the appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker


each of us devotes about ___% of our daily lives to listening

characteristics of oral style

use familiar terms, easy to follow sentences, repeat ey words and phrases 3 times, uses we, I, & you, expected to be formal, clear recognizable and organized, audience needs recognition

supporting points

examples, definitions, testimony, and statistics that support or illustrate a speaker's main points

4 functions of an introduction

1. capture attention(use a quotation, short story, example), 2. introduce the topic and purpose of the speech, 3. preview your main points, 4. use a transition to signal start of the speech

guidelines for evaluating internet sources

reliable?(URL), authoritative?, who wrote it?, is it current?, info complete?, relevant?, pertain to the article?, consistent/unbiased?

elements of the communication process

1.source- person creating the message,
2.receiver- is the audience, medium through which message is delivered like t.v.,
4.shared meaning- understanding of message between all

5 canons of rhetoric

1. invention - adapting speech info to fit your audience
2. arrangement - organize in ways best suited to speech/audience
3. style - use of language to express ideas
4. memory - method of rehearsing
5. delivery - method of presenting speech for optimal effect
Guidelines or rules of speechmaking established by the Greekk scholar Aristotle

4 stages of speaking anxiety

pre-preparation- anxious hearing you must make a speech
preparation - anxious about time & planning required
pre-presentation - anxious when rehearsing, may decide not to
presentation - most anxious at introduction, gets better

role demographics play in adapting your speech to the audience

first you must know your audience. There are 6 statistical characteristics to consider: age, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status, religion, political affiliation and gender. Other factors may include: group membership, physical disability, sexual orientation or place of residence. ONce you identify your target audience you will know the best way to present your ideas

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