Chapter 22: The Respiratory System
Terms in this set (106)
What is the respiratory system?
-an organ system
-takes in air and expels it from the body, supplying the body with oxygen and expelling the carbon dioxide that it generates
What does the term respiration mean?
--ventilation of the lungs (breathing)
--the use of oxygen in cellular metabolism
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
--gas exchange between blood and air
--speech and vocalization
--synthesis of angiotensin II
--creates pressure gradient for lymph and venous blood flow
--filters and dissolves small blood clots
What are the to divisions that the respiratory system is divided into?
1. conducting system
2. respiratory division
What serves for air flow and consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles?
the conducting division
What serves as gas exchange and consists of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli?
the respiratory system
The airway from the nose through the larynx is often called what?
upper respiratory tract (head and neck)
The regions from the trachea through the lungs compose the what?
lower respiratory tract
What are the nose functions?
-warms, cleanses, and humidifies air
The nasal cavity begins with a small dilates chamber called the what?
The vestibule is lined with tissue and contains what on its surface to block insects and debris from entering the nose?
--stratified simple squamous
--guard hairs (vibrissae)
The nasal cavity also contains what that project from the lateral walls towards the septum?
superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae or turbinates
Odors are detected by sensory cells in the what tissue and where in the respiratory system?
-roof of nasal fossa
-adjacent parts of the septum
What is the rest of the nasal cavity, except for the vestibule, lines with?
What is the overall tissue name?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia
What is under each concha that is a narrow opening called?
What is the purpose of the mucous membrane in the conchae?
the warm and moisten air
What is the hollow tube from the posterior nasal aperture to the larynx?
What are the functions of the pharynx?
serves as a passageway for air and food, a resonating chamber, and a housing for the tonsils
What are the three parts of the pharynx from superior to inferior?
What is the major difference in the three types?
nasopharynx passes only air and is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, whereas oropharynx and laryngopharynx pass air, food, and drink and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium
What is composed of 9 pieces of cartilage and forms a short passageway connecting the laryngopharynx with the trachea?
What are landmarks for making an emergency airway (called a circothyrotomy)?
the thyroid cartilage and the one below it, the cricoid cartilage
What is the larynx aka?
the voice box
What is the flap of tissue that guards the entrance of the larynx?
At rest, what does the epiglottis look like?
it stands almost vertical
What does it look like during swallowing and why?
It is pushed down by the tongue and pulled up by the extrinsic muscles to meet and close off the airway so that the food will be directed to the esophagus
The interior wall of the larynx have two folds on each side called what?
Which one plays no role in speech but close the larynx during swallowing?
Which one produces sound when air passes between them?
vocal folds (true vocal cords)
What is the opening in between them?
What is a semi-rigis 12 cm long pipe made of 16-20 semi-circular cartilaginous (hyaline rings), and located anterior to the esophagus?
the trachea (windpipe)
What is the purpose of the hyaline rings?
like a vacuum cleaner hose, the rings reinforce the trachea and keep it from collapsing when you inhale
What smooth muscle allows swallowed food to pass and can contract or relax to adjust airflow?
What moves mucous and trapped particles down toward the pharynx?
cilia in the upper respiratory tract
What moves the mucous and such up towards the larynx?
cilia in the lower respiratory tract
What is the debris removal mechanism called?
What part of the lung is superior and extends slightly above the the clavicles?
What part of the lungs rest on the diaphragm?
What is in the left lung and is the indention for the heart that makes the left lung 10% smaller than the right lung?
the cardiac notch
What are the lungs divided into lobes by?
The right is divided by what fissure(s)?
the oblique and horizontal fissures
How many lobes are in the right lung and what are they called?
The left lung is divided by what fissure(s)?
How many lobes are in the left lung and what are they called?
Each lung has a branching system of air tubes called what?
Which bronchi emerge from the inferior trachea to go to the lungs, situated in the right and left pleural cavities?
What is the internal ridge located at the junction of the two bronchi? And what is this a sensitive area for?
-triggering the cough reflex
Why would aspirated (inhaled) foreign objects lodge in the right bronchus more often than in the left?
the right side is wider and more vertical than the left one
The right primary bronchi divide into three other secondary bronchi which are?
-superior lobar bronchi
-middle lobar bronchi
-inferior lobar bronchi
The left primary bronchi divide into two other secondary bronchi which are?
-superior lobar bronchi
-inferior lobar bronchi
In both lungs, the lobar bronchi branch into what?
segmental bronchi (tertiary)
How many tertiary are in the left and right?
-10 in the right
-8 in the left
Each one ventilates a functionally independent unit of lung tissue called what?
The bronchial tree itself is services by the what artery?
The segmental bronchi divide further into what?
What are bronchioles?
-continuations of the airway that lack supportive cartilage
What is the portion of the lung ventilated by one bronchiole called?
Each bronchiole divides into 50 to 80 what that are the final branches of the conducting division?
What happens as the bronchi turns into bronchioles structurally?
-the mucous membrane (glands & goblet cells) disappear
-the cartilaginous rings become more sparse, and eventually disappear altogether
-as cartilage decreases, smooth muscle increases to regulate airflow
What causes airway dilation?
What causes airway constriction?
Each terminal bronchiole gives off two or more smaller what that serve as the beginning of the respiratory division?
What do terminal bronchioles have budding from their walls?
What are the cup-shaped outpouchings which participate in gas exchange?
Is it true that the the alveoli on the respiratory bronchioles rudimentary and mostly nonfunctioning?
Each respiratory bronchiole divides into 2 to 10 elongated, thin-walled passageways called what?
alveolar duct (which also have alveoli along their walls)
The alveolar ducts and smaller divisions have what type of tissue?
nonciliated simple squamous epithelia
The alveolar ducts end in ______, which are grapelike clusters of alveoli arrayed around a central space.
What is the central space of the clusters called?
Alveoli are delicate structures composed of what type of cells that allow for gas exchange?
squamous (type I) alveolar cells
What type of cells secrete a substance called surfactant?
Great (type II) cells
What is the mixture of phospholipids and protein that prevents collapse of the alveoli during exhalation?
What type of cells scavenge the alveolar surface to phagocytize dust particles?
alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
What is the barrier between the alveolar air and blood?
the respiratory membrane
What is the respiratory membrane composed of?
it is composed of squamous alveolar cells, the squamous endothelial cells, and their shared basement membrane
What carries deoxygenated blood from the right heart to the lungs for oxygenation?
What branches from the aorta and deliver oxygenated blood to the lungs primarily perfusing the muscular walls of the bronchi and bronchioles?
Each lung is enclosed by a double-layered what?
What are the two layers of the pleural membrane?
What does the parietal pleura do?
lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
What does the visceral pleura do?
adhere tightly to the surface of the lungs themselves
On each side of the thorax, what is formed between the parietal and visceral layers?
What does the pleural cavity create that is crucial to the mechanism of breathing?
What reduces friction and produces a surface tension so the layers can slide across one another?
the pleural fluid in the cavity
What are the three functions of the pleural cavity?
1. reduction of friction
2. creation of pressure gradient
What is the movement of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli?
What does pulmonary ventilation consist of?
inhalation (inspiration) &
What is the prime mover of respiration?
What aids in breathing, especially during forced respiration?
Ventilation is made possible by what?
start back in book
on page 866
Boyle's Law says what?
volume and pressure are inversely related
If there is a decrease in volume....
there will be a increase in pressure
What does Boyle's Law apply to in respiration?
applies to our thoracic cage, which can be bigger or smaller depending on the diaphragm
Gas will always move from a region of what to what?
High pressure to low pressure
If the volume inside the thoracic cavity increases (due to contraction of diaphragm and external intercostals) what happens to the pressure in the lungs?
the pressure in the lungs decrease and air rushed in (inspiration)
Relaxation of the diaphragm, with/without contraction of the internal intercostals, decreases the size of the thorax which does what to pressure?
increases the air pressure, and results in exhalation
What is the equation of pressure that shows that the atmosphere exerts a significant force on every object on the planet?
What makes air pressure vary greatly?
depending on altitude and temperature
What is air pressure at sea level?
760 mmHg = 1 atmosphere = 1 kPa
What is air pressure at high altitudes?
it is less
What are the three other factors other than pressure that also affect the ease with which we ventilate? (resistance to airflow)
1. diameter of the bronchioles
2. pulmonary compliance
3. surface tension of the alveoli and distal bronchioles
Diameter of bronchioles explained...
the larger the diameter of an airway, the less the airway resistance, and the greater the flow of air
high lung compliance means the lungs and chest wall expand easily--compliance is decreased by a broken rib or by diseases such as pneumonia or emphysema
surface tension of alveolar fluid causes the alveoli to assume the smallest possible diameter and accounts for 2/3 of lung elastic recoil--surfactant prevents collapse
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