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Psychology (4th Edition) Chapter 1
Chapter one vocab David Myers fourth edition
Terms in this set (27)
the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusion. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for natural studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggest the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in a drug-evaluation studies.
(Latin for "I shall please") effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
an ethical principle that research participant be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
when we think we know more than we actually do
curiosity skepticism humility
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